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Transistor Equivalent Book 2sc - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. convenience and entertainment in today's world. Free Transistor Equivalent Book - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. book, halfpage . Philips Semiconductors a worldwide company. I during 80's and 90's, I used to search for components equivalents in books. Is there any web-based or stand alone program to do such service.
This tutorial is split into a series of sections, covering: Symbols, Pins, and Construction -- Explaining the differences between the transistor's three pins. Extending the Water Analogy -- Going back to the water analogy to explain how a transistor acts like a valve.
Operation Modes -- An overview of the four possible operating modes of a transistor.
Applications I: Switches -- Application circuits showing how transistors are used as electronically controlled switches. Applications II: Amplifiers -- More application circuits, this time showing how transistors are used to amplify voltage or current. In this tutorial we'll focus on the BJT, because it's slightly easier to understand. We'll turn our focus even sharper by limiting our early discussion to the NPN.
Electricity Basics -- We'll talk a bit about electricity as the flow of electrons. Find out how those electrons flow in this tutorial. Electric Power -- One of the transistors main applications is amplifying -- increasing the power of a signal. Increasing power means we can increase either current or voltage, find out why in this tutorial. Diodes -- A transistor is a semiconductor device, just like a diode.
In a way, it's what you'd get if you stacked two diodes together, and tied their anodes together. Understanding how a diode works will go a long way towards uncovering the operation of a transistor. Symbols, Pins, and Construction Transistors are fundamentally three-terminal devices.
Transistor Construction Transistors rely on semiconductors to work their magic. A semiconductor is a material that's not quite a pure conductor like copper wire but also not an insulator like air. The conductivity of a semiconductor -- how easily it allows electrons to flow -- depends on variables like temperature or the presence of more or less electrons. Let's look briefly under the hood of a transistor. Don't worry, we won't dig too deeply into quantum physics.
A Transistor as Two Diodes Transistors are kind of like an extension of another semiconductor component: diodes.
In a way transistors are just two diodes with their cathodes or anodes tied together: The diode connecting base to emitter is the important one here; it matches the direction of the arrow on the schematic symbol, and shows you which way current is intended to flow through the transistor.
The diode representation is a good place to start, but it's far from accurate. Don't base your understanding of a transistor's operation on that model and definitely don't try to replicate it on a breadboard, it won't work. There's a whole lot of weird quantum physics level stuff controlling the interactions between the three terminals. This model is useful if you need to test a transistor.
Using the diode or resistance test function on a multimeter , you can measure across the BE and BC terminals to check for the presence of those "diodes". Transistor Structure and Operation Transistors are built by stacking three different layers of semiconductor material together. Some of those layers have extra electrons added to them a process called "doping" , and others have electrons removed doped with "holes" -- the absence of electrons.
A semiconductor material with extra electrons is called an n-type n for negative because electrons have a negative charge and a material with electrons removed is called a p-type for positive.
Transistors are created by either stacking an n on top of a p on top of an n, or p over n over p. Simplified diagram of the structure of an NPN. Notice the origin of any acronyms? With some hand waving, we can say electrons can easily flow from n regions to p regions, as long as they have a little force voltage to push them. But flowing from a p region to an n region is really hard requires a lot of voltage. But the special thing about a transistor -- the part that makes our two-diode model obsolete -- is the fact that electrons can easily flow from the p-type base to the n-type collector as long as the base-emitter junction is forward biased meaning the base is at a higher voltage than the emitter.
The NPN transistor is designed to pass electrons from the emitter to the collector so conventional current flows from collector to emitter. The emitter "emits" electrons into the base, which controls the number of electrons the emitter emits.
Most of the electrons emitted are "collected" by the collector, which sends them along to the next part of the circuit.
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Physical verification software. What is a transistor? This definition explains what a transistor is, what it does and how it works and provides information on its history.
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This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor SNT designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog. This is open source, but it seems there is no further development. NTE Electronics Inc.
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In most cases it will operate satisfactorily, but occasionally there may be a problem. If this is the case, it is necessary to re-visit the way in which the choice of the replacement transistor was made and see if any mistakes were made or look for other parameters that may affect the operation of the transistor circuit.
What if I can't find the original transistor details? Sometimes it is very easy to find out the parameters of a particular transistor as it may be possible to find them on the Internet or in a transistor data book. If this is not possible, either because the markings are not visible, or the data cannot be found, then not all is lost. It is still possible to find out a lot about the transistor from its package and also the circuit in which it is being used.
In this way it is usually possible to find a suitable replacement transistor. The step by step instructions below should help the essential parameters of the transistor to be discovered.
Step by step instructions: These instructions are set out in an approximate order of the most significant parameters first followed by the less significant ones: Is it a transistor? This may appear to be an obvious question, but occasionally some devices may appear to be a transistor at first sight.
It may be a field effect transistor, a Darlington transistor or even some other form of device. Alternatively, sometimes small voltage regulators are contained in packages similar to that of a transistor.
Other devices may also appear in what may appear to be transistor packages at first sight. Careful examination of the application will enable this to be verified. It may be possible to discover this in a number of ways. If the original transistor is still working then this can be discovered by measuring the voltage across the base emitter junction when it is forward biased.
This should be about 0. Alternatively it may be possible to ascertain the type by looking at other transistors in the circuit. Often the same technology will be used throughout the equipment. This is not always true so beware!
Look at the specifications for other transistors in the same packages and this will give a good guide. Those packages designed for mounting on heatsinks will be more variable because they can often dissipate more power dependent upon the heatsink. It is best to be more cautious with these packages.