NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - Welcome to ethesis - ethesis The book «s unique for its coverage of all types of questions A Modern wm-greece.info PDF | On Oct 13, , wm-greece.info and others published Non Conventional Energy Resources Book. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Non Conventional Energy Resources | This textbook is designed to meet the requirement of the students of under graduate.
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Non-conventional energy. – Seasonal variations and availability. Renewable energy – sources and features. Hybrid energy systems Distributed energy systems. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES. N K BANSAL. Vikas Publishing. ; pages; Paperback; " x " inches; Book Non-Conventional Energy Resources. By B H Khan. About this book · Shop for Books on Google Play. Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading.
Edited by 0. Barut, A. Cambridge University Press. Paperback f In his Goetingen Lecture, which was recorded, Rutherford said that he was confident that nature was simple, being a simple man himself. This volume does little to uphold that view. The studies published in honour of de Broglie, Dirac, and Wigner, illustrate rather how incredibly far human imagination must be stretched to describe, in words, the workings of a quantized, wave-determined, relativistic world.
The constant G, of fundamental importance in any unified theory of natural forces, is thereby given a smaller, but non-zero rate of decrease with time. Mark Oliphant Wind as a Geological Process.
Greley and J. Space exploration has provided an opportunity to make quantitative comparative studies of physical processes associated with the Earth and planets. Geological studies are now possible that enable the processes of impact cratering, volcanisms, crustal deformation, and weathering to be investigated throughout the solar system.
This book is concerned with the particular aspect of wind-blown processes. On the Earth, they are a major aspect of the terrestrial geology, which we witness in the semi-arid and desert areas. These aeolian processes are also of major importance on Mars, whose surface features appeared sculptured and the planet is frequently transformed by gigantic dust storms. Such processes are also suspected on Venus and Titan. The authors have produced a well-written and illustrated book which provides a thorough background to this important topic.
The book will be of interest to terrestrial and planetary geologists and is another important member of the Cambridge Planetary Science Series which should find its way into both private and institutional libraries. Hunt The Island of South Georgia. By Robert Headland. South Georgia was first sighted by Antoine de la Roche, a London merchant, in but the first landing, charting, and exploration were carried out by Cook in One of the prisoners taken on that day was Bob Headland, acting base commander of the British Antarctic Survey scientific station at King Edward Point.
He succeeds magnificently. The first hydro power plant in India was set up at Darjeeling in , followed by a second plant at Sivasamudaram in Karnataka in The total installed capacity which was MW in increased to 20, MW in Merits of Hydro Power.
Except for the heavy initial investment hydel, projects have a definite edge over other power plants. Hydel power projects not only provide cheap generation of electricity but are renewable in nature since water is renewable or inexhaustible source.
In other words hydel projects have a very low generation and maintenance cost, while the cost of input, i. There is no problem of pollution of environment or disposal of waste matter in generation of hydel power. Oil, coal and gas resources which can be used for providing electricity are in short supply and exert greater pressure on foreign exchange resources, hydel power can easily replace them. In addition, hydel projects can also be used to meet the requirement of irrigation in the down stream areas, and can also adequately meet the demands of power.
Problems of Hydro Power. It is probably because the initial investment and execution period of hydro-electric projects are comparatively much more. Another major drawback of hydel projects is displacement of population and damage to environment and fertile lands.
There seems to be no escape from long gestation periods. But for the displacement of population and damage to environment and fertile lands, the focus is shifting from constructing big dams to the run-of-the-river projects. While dams are preferred in the foothills, so that area downstream could be irrigated also, run-of-the-river projects are preferred in the high hills, which are far from plains.
Such projects do not require big reservoirs and electricity is generated from water available in the river at a particular point of time. This does not need to displace any population, on the one hand, and does not affect the forests and environment, on the other. But such projects cannot increase electricity generation to meet the peaking requirements, as done by the reservoir based hydel projects.
Hence a blend of both types of hydel projects is recommended. Nuclear Power Deficiency of quality coal and natural gas and oil has forced the urgency of developing nuclear power in India. The nuclear power generation began in India in with the commissioning of first atomic power station at Tarapore with foreign technology. India achieved a landmark in nuclear power programme by building and commissioning indigeneously the Kalpakkam atomic power plant in Madras in Since then India has acquired all the capabilities needed to generate nuclear power.
Homi J. Bhabha in , formulated a three stage programme for attaining self reliance in nuclear power using uranium and vast thorium resources of India. First Stage. Use of natural uranium U as fuel in pressurised heavy water-reactors PHWR to produce power and plutonium. Second Stage. Nuclear Power Reactors Location No. Kaiga 36 2. Rawatbhatta 3. Use of thorium. U in an advanced fuel cycle and reactor system under development. The first stage has reached the commercial stage.
The generation of power from nuclear energy began in India in with the commissioning of first atomic power station at Tarapore i. The total installed capacity of nuclear power stations in operation at five sites in five states see under nuclear power reactors given in box is MWe. Nuclear Energy Minerals. India is rich in certain atomic or nuclear minerals. Uranium is obtained from Jaduguda mines situated in Singhbhum district of Bihar and also from parts of Rajasthan. Abundant monazite sands on the coast of Kerala is chief source of thorium and uranium.
Illmenite and zirconium are found concentrated in the beach sands of Malabar and Coromandal coasts. Graphite is found in Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
A number of industrial base has been created in the country in the various renewable energy technologies such as solar thermal, solar photovoltaics, wind, small hydro, biomass etc. An aggregate capacity of MW has been installed, based on these technologies.
Plan and Policy. The non-conventional sources of energy are capable of solving the twin problems of energy supply in a decentralised manner and helping in sustaining cleaner environment. The government is encouraging New and Renewable Sources of Energy NRSE to meet the growing demand of energy, to act as supplement to the fast depeleting conventional sources of energy and also to meet energy needs of the rural areas.
Its main activities include programme for development of solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, hydrogen energy, biomass energy, chemical sources of energy, energy from waste, biogas, improved chulha, waste recycling, magnetohydrodynamics, etc.
In planning and implementation of NRSE programmes particular care is taken to elicit the cooperation of local communities and to meet their needs for small power, such as energy for cooking, supply of water for minor irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes as well as also street lighting.
These programmes have proved particularly useful in remote and hilly areas in providing facility for the welfare of weaker sections of the society. Sun is a source of enormous energy. It is believed that with just 0. Solar energy can be utilised in three ways : i converting it into thermal energy ; ii converting it into electricity ; and iii photosynthesis.
Thermal Energy Thermal energy from sun can be obtained by using a solar collector. A large number of applications of solar thermal energy particularly those where low-grade thermal energy is required, have already become commercial. Work is on to develop economically viable solar collectors for high temperature applications.
Solar thermal systems are today supplementary thermal energy requirements at various temperatures from 60CC for different domestic and industrial applications including process heating and power generation. Solar water heating systems have vast potential to save electricity in domestic and commercial sectors and furnace oil in industrial sector which otherwise are being used for hot water supply. A proposal for setting up a 35 MW solar thermal power project at Maithania village in Jodhpur, Rajasthan based on line focussing collectors has been under the consideration of the Ministry.
Main activities of the centre include solar heating research, systems design and engineering, solar thermal power generation, solar passive architecture and greenhouse technology. Solar Photovoltaic In solar photovoltaic system SPV electricity is generated directly from solar energy. It works on the principle of photoelectric effect : when light falls on certain metals, like silicon, the electrons get excited and escape from the metal ; these are then collected by another metal and passed through wires in a steady stream ; the electron flow thus set up constitutes the electric current.
The basic unit of SPV is a solar cell which is a wafer of electron-emitting metal. Solar electrification in remote villages has also begun.
This way of utilisation of solar energy is attractive considering the favourable solar radiation conditions and large requirement of electricity for decentralised applications.
The easy installation and maintenance, absence of noise and pollution and long life make SPV systems favourable for use in remote and isolated areas, forest, hilly and desert regions. The major constraint in the spread of SPV is the high initial costs, the most expensive input being the silicon wafer which is partly imported. Fortunately the Metkem Silicon Ltd. Suryovonics Ltd.
A fully automated pilot plant for production of amorphous silicon SPV modules based on a glass-substrate has been commissioned in Gurgaon in It has been proved both in algae and in higher plants that under optimal conditions and over short period of time and at relatively low intensity light, upto 30 per cent of the light absorbed is transformed into chemical energy. Bio-energy is produced either by direct use of biomass or its conversion into gaseous or liquid fuels and includes biogas.
Biomass Biomass occupies a predominant place as an energy source in rural India. Biomass is defined as living matter or its residues, which is a renewable source of energy. Common examples of biomass are wood, grass, herbage, grains, bagasse etc.
The main sources of biomass can be classified into two groups : i waste material including those derived from agriculture, forestry and municipal wastes ; and ii growing energy crops involving short rotation forestry plantations.
Under biomass programme measures have been initiated to plant fast growing short rotation, high calorific value species of plants and trees to meet the needs of fuels, fodder and power. These are called energy planations.
Grown in wastelands, besides providing energy, they also improve soil fertility and decrease soil erosion. For producing power from biomass gasifier systems and stirling engines have been developed indigenously. These devices convert biomass wastes and agricultural residues to energy through gasification or combustion. Biomass is also being used for production of liquid fuel for transportation such as ethanol and methanol and solid fuel through conversion of agricultural wastes into pellets and briquettes.
Vegetable oils, having high calorific value and ignition quality approximating to those of diesel oil, can act as substitute or supplement to diesel oil.
But due to their high viscosity and carbon residue vegetable oils may present pumping and vaporisation difficulties in engines and also heavy smoke emission in exhaust. To overcome these hurdles, IIT Madras has adopted two different approaches : i making the diesel engine more adiabatic and ii esterification of vegetable oil with methanol or ethanol. IIT Delhi is working on efficient utilisation of producer gas in combustion engines. India has taken following measures in raising energy from biomass conversion : A 10 MW rice straw based thermal plantthe first of its kindhas been commissioned by BHEL at Jhalkhari in Punjab.
A pilot plant to generate electricity from garbage and municipal wastes has been installed at Timarpur, Delhi. The first large scale plant to produce fuel pellets from municipal garbage has begun trial runs at Bombay. A KW gasifier system has been established at Port Blair and a 15 KW sugarcanewater based system is under field evaluation. Biogas is a gaseous mixture in varied composition ; generally composed of 60 per cent methane a high value fuel. It is produced by anaerobic fermentation biological process of natural organic wastes.
The organic wastes may be : i cowdung and other animal excreta ; ii human excreta ; iii agricultural wastes such as straw, plant, leaves, algae, bagasse, paddy husk, water weeds etc. Biogas is commonly produced from cattle dung in a biogas plant, known as gobar gas plant, through a process called digestion that involves anaerobic fermentation.
While producing biogas, the manurial value of the dung is not reduced but the slurry from biogas plant is an enriched manure as it has a higher content of oxygen, phosphorus and potassium. Accordingly such plants help in obtaining both fuel and manure from the same quantity of cattle dung.
Biogas is a clean, cheap and convenient cooking fuel. It can also be used for lighting purposes and running small motors for lifting and providing power for cottage industries. There are several other advantages for rural families if they adopt biogas technology. The rural women and children will be spared the ordeal of daily collection and loading on their heads heavy bundles of firewood. There will be an end to the fumes that are part of the traditional chulhas that are smarting to the eyes and create lung diseases ; a lot of time is also saved in cooking and cleaning of the utensils and vessels ; indiscriminate felling of trees for fuel is also reduced.
And if latrines are attached to these plants it helps village sanitation too. What makes the unit financially viable is the cash inflow in terms of saving on firewood and production and use of enriched manure with a high content of oxygen, phosphorus and potassium for agriculture. Scientists have also developed biogas plant that can operate on a variety of feed materials such as night soil, water hyacinth, agricultural wastes, deoiled castor cakes, willow dust and food waste.
They are : Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. This energy is used to drive turbines for generating electricity. In tropical countries like India the temperature gradient in the seas is as great as 25C. Wave Energy.
The energy of waves, generated in their continual upward and downward motion, is harnessed to activate either a water operated or, preferably, air operated turbine to generate electricity.
The wave energy potential of the km long Indian coast is estimated about 40, MW. Trade wind belts in Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal are the ideal places for trapping wave energy. Wave power is renewable and pollution free but very expensive Re. Indias first wave energy power plant of KW maximum capacity based on. The Department of Ocean Development has declared the plant at Vzhinjam as a national facility for wave energy and wave application studies.
Harnessing wave energy on this principle is being explored in India and a 1 MW wave energy plant is being set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tidal Energy. The regular flow and ebb of tides, produced by the gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon are also useful for producing electricity, specially where the tidal range, i. If either a natural or artificial reservoir is available, power can be produced by moving the incoming and outgoing tides through turbines.
Asias first tidal power point of MW capacity is proposed to be set up at Kandla in the Gulf of Kutch. Current Energy. Theoretically, the moving ocean current can be used to generate energy by allowing the water to pass through a series of turbines installed under water.
But the energy density that can be harnessed is low ; maintaining the turbines in position is a bigger problem. Ocean Wind Energy. Winds in the coastal areas are relatively stronger and smoother than winds in the land area and can be harnessed as a source of energy. Several countries are producing energy from this source. Some of the problems associated with trade wind zone are icing and hurricane. Salinity Gradient Energy. If a semi-permeable membrane is placed between two water bodies of different saline concentration then water with lower salinity begins to flow through the membrane towards higher salinity until both attain equal concentration.
This is called osmosis. This movement in osmosis can generate an electric current. In Sweden a pilot study is being conducted to generate power of MW from salinity gradient energy. Ocean Geothermal Energy. Theoretically, this method uses the temperature gradient as in OTEC but in the reverse way in that the temperature at the earth crust is low and higher at its deeper levels. But the method has not been practically applied.
Bio Conversion Energy. Sea weeds can also be converted into fuel and other energy products like methane, food and fertilisers. Wind has kinetic energy by virtue of the movement of large masses of air caused by differential heating of the atmosphere by the sun. This energy can be utilised for performing mechanical and electrical works.
Wind turbines can be used to generate electricity, for lifting water from wells and for direct water pumping. The total wind energy potential in India is estimated at 20, MW. A total capacity of MW has been installed by Coastal areas of Tamil Nadu. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are favourable for wind power generation. Wind power in India has been developed both in the stand alone mode with diesel back-up and pumped storage to ensure supply during little wind and in wind farms which have arrays of turbines for supplying bulk power needs for grids.
Asias first wind farm project is at Mandvi in Kutch district of Gujarat. The major source of this energy in the form of heat is molten underground rock or magma. Geothermal energy is extracted for heating and power generation from natural steam, hot water or dry rocks in the Earths crust. Water is pumped down through an injection well where it passes through joints in the hot rocks and then water rises to the surface through a recovery well.
This water may be converted into steam through a heat exchanger. Dry steam may be passed through turbines to produce electricity. Approximately ten per cent of the earth surface provides access to heat inside the earth. The most potent sources are volcanoes and hot springs but there are other areas too from where heat can be generated under controlled conditions.
In India hot springs localities with average temperatures of 80CC have been identified as the potential source of geothermal energy. Work is on in several parts of India to survey and assess geothermal potential and utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat and power generation. The use of geothermal energy for space heating and greenhouse effect has been demonstrated. A project on mushroom cultivation and poultry farming using geothermal fluid is under implementation at Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu.
The green house for the project will be established at Puga Valley utilising the existing geothermal borewell. Generation of power from thermal energy using MHD technology invovles expansion of superhot K electrically conducting gas against the retarding force of a strong magnetic field to produce electric power directly.
Thus in MHD, the turbine and generator are combined into a single unit but without any moving parts. Research is going on for designing bigger MHD plants that will produce clean and cheap power and operate at greater efficiency than existing coal and nuclear plants.
This is mainly for farming and transportation.