Ramayana as PDF e-book – The story of King Rama in four volumes. The complete PDF version of the Hindu Epic tale of Ramayana in English. Tags: Aranya > Ayodhya Kanda > Bala > Hanuman > Kishkindha > pdf > Rama > Ramayana > Sanskrit > Sita > Sundara Kanda > The Mahabaratha > Uttara. Ramayana is a Hindu book about Rama incarnation of Vishnu. It tells the story of Rama and his his wife Sita. Download Ramayana free. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. + Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by.
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Ramayana. This eBook is for 6 Called in Sanskrit also Bála-Ká a, and in Hindí Bál-Ká, i.e. the Book. Narayan also published travel books, volumes of essays, the memoir My Days, and the retold legends Gods,. Demons, and Others, The Ramayana, and The. Book I: Bala-Kanda (The Chapter on Rama as a Youth). In the land of the Kosalas (north of the as the son of Dasharatha. So,. Ramayana Summary, p. 1 of
What I find missing sorely from works such as these is the poetic essence. Everything but the basic plot seems to be lost in translation. Here are a couple of smaller examples: Both the language and content of these footnotes come across as unnecessary, silly even. To be fair, she does offer some sensible insights in places and the background to certain situations in others.
But I stopped reading the footnotes by page 5, and I hope the author will stop writing them by book three. So whether you want it or not, you have an author, commentator, moral compass, annotation enthusiast, spiritual adviser and a management guru all rolled into one. The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha.
When Rama is 16 years old, sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites. He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama and Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and proceed to destroy the demons. Janaka was the king of Mithila.
One day, a female child was found in the field by the king in the deep furrow dug by his plough. Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded the child as a "miraculous gift of god". The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm.
The king had decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his ancestors by Shiva , could marry Sita. Sage Vishwamitra takes Rama and Lakshmana to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama desires to lift it and goes on to wield the bow and when he draws the string, it breaks.
The weddings are celebrated with great festivity in Mithila and the marriage party returns to Ayodhya. After Rama and Sita have been married for twelve years, an elderly Dasharatha expresses his desire to crown Rama, to which the Kosala assembly and his subjects express their support. On the eve of the great event, Kaikeyi — her jealousy aroused by Manthara , a wicked maidservant — claims two boons that Dasharatha had long ago granted her. Kaikeyi demands Rama to be exiled into the wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her son Bharata.
The heartbroken king, constrained by his rigid devotion to his given word, accedes to Kaikeyi's demands. Rama accepts his father's reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-control which characterises him throughout the story. He is joined by Sita and Lakshmana. When he asks Sita not to follow him, she says, "the forest where you dwell is Ayodhya for me and Ayodhya without you is a veritable hell for me. Meanwhile, Bharata who was on a visit to his maternal uncle, learns about the events in Ayodhya.
Bharata refuses to profit from his mother's wicked scheming and visits Rama in the forest.
He requests Rama to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father's orders to the letter, refuses to return before the period of exile.
However, Bharata carries Rama's sandals and keeps them on the throne, while he rules as Rama's regent. After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana journey southward along the banks of river Godavari , where they build cottages and live off the land. At the Panchavati forest they are visited by a rakshasi named Shurpanakha , sister of Ravana. She tries to seduce the brothers and, after failing, attempts to kill Sita. Lakshmana stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. Hearing of this, her brother Khara organises an attack against the princes.
Rama defeats Khara and his raskshasas. When the news of these events reach Ravana, he resolves to destroy Rama by capturing Sita with the aid of the rakshasa Maricha.
Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita's attention. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it. Rama, aware that this is the ploy of the demons, cannot dissuade Sita from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana's guard.
After some time, Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid. Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama is invincible and that it is best if he continues to follow Rama's orders to protect her. On the verge of hysterics, Sita insists that it is not she but Rama who needs Lakshmana's help.
He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any stranger. He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana rekha , around the cottage and casts a spell on it that prevents anyone from entering the boundary but allows people to exit. With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality.
Unaware of her guest's plan, Sita is tricked into leaving the rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana. Jatayu , a vulture , tries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded.
At Lanka, Sita is kept under the guard of rakshasis. Ravana asks Sita to marry him, but she refuses, being eternally devoted to Rama. Meanwhile, Rama and Lakshmana learn about Sita's abduction from Jatayu and immediately set out to save her. During their search, they meet Kabandha and the ascetic Shabari , who direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman. Kishkindha Kanda is set in the ape Vanara citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the biggest devotee of Rama, greatest of ape heroes and an adherent of Sugriva , the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.
Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kishkindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita. However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in enjoying his powers.
The clever former ape queen Tara wife of Vali calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the ape citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honour his pledge.
Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west. The southern search party under the leadership of Angada and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati elder brother of Jatayu , that Sita was taken to Lanka. Sundara Kanda forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramayana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman 's adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka.
On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities. He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Lord Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Lord Hanuman refuses because there is little time remaining to complete the search for Sita.
After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka. Hanuman fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana.
Hanuman reassures Sita, giving Rama's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Rama; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramayana will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama — "When Rama is not there Ravana carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana was not there, Hanuman carried Sita back to Rama". She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction.
Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors.
He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island. The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news.
Also known as Lanka Kanda , this book describes the war between the army of Rama and the army of Ravana. Having received Hanuman's report on Sita, Rama and Lakshmana proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea. There they are joined by Ravana's renegade brother Vibhishana.
The apes named Nala and Nila construct a floating bridge known as Rama Setu  across the sea, using stones that floated on water because they had Rama's name written on them. The princes and their army cross over to Lanka.
A lengthy war ensues. During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded and is nearly killed. Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka. Eventually, the war ends when Rama kills Ravana. Rama then installs Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka. On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo an Agni Pariksha test of fire to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity.
When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni , lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence. In Tulsidas 's Ramacharitamanas , Sita was under the protection of Agni see Maya Sita so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama.
At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya with Sita and Lakshmana, where the coronation is performed. This is the beginning of Ram Rajya, which implies an ideal state with good morals. Ramayan is not only the story about how truth defeats the evil, it also teaches us to forget all the evil and arrogance that resides inside ourselves. Uttara Kanda concerns the final years of Rama, Sita and Rama's brothers.
After being crowned king, Rama passes time pleasantly with Sita. After some time, Sita gets pregnant with twin children.
However, questions about her "purity" spread among the populace of Ayodhya and the people reject the Agni Pariksha "fire ordeal" as proof of her purity. They refuse to accept Sita as their queen because, despite her innocence, they believe she is of soiled reputation. Rama yields to public opinion and reluctantly banishes Sita to the forest, where the sage Valmiki provides shelter in his ashrama "hermitage". Here, she gives birth to twin boys, Lava and Kusha , who become pupils of Valmiki and are brought up in ignorance of their identity.
Valmiki composes the Ramayana and teaches Lava and Kusha to sing it. Lava and Kusha sing the Ramayana in the presence of Rama and his vast audience. When the twins learn how Rama banished Sita to the forest, they leave the palace, angry at the treatment meted to Sita by Rama. Later, Rama decides to conduct the Ashwamedha yagna which requires the presence of his wife. Rama refuses to do so saying that he wishes to remain loyal to Sita and instead decides to use an idol of Sita for the yagna.
He asks the idol to be made of gold, symbolic of what he thinks of her purity. Seeing them, Rama becomes grief-stricken and wants them to return to Ayodhya.
Realizing this, Rama asks Sita to prove her purity before the people of Ayodhya. Tired of repeated trials by a patriarchal society, Sita calls upon the Earth, her mother , to receive her if she has always been loyal to Rama. Many years later, a messenger from the Gods appears and informs Rama that the mission of his incarnation is over. Rama hands over the kingdom of Ayodhya to his children and returns to his celestial abode along with his brothers.
It was dramatised as Uttararamacarita by the Sanskrit poet Bhavabhuti. As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana survive. In particular, the Ramayana related in north India differs in important respects from that preserved in south India and the rest of southeast Asia. There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India.
Some of them differ significantly from each other. During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram , known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil. The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese by Madhava Kandali.
Valmiki's Ramayana inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas by Tulsidas in , an epic Awadhi a dialect of Hindi version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti ; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana.
Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana in the 17th century. There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana , prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story. Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a subterranean cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali.
Adbhuta Ramayana is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki — intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki Ramayana. In this variant of the narrative, Sita is accorded far more prominence, such as elaboration of the events surrounding her birth — in this case to Ravana 's wife, Mandodari as well as her conquest of Ravana's older brother in her Mahakali form.
Sita was the wife of Rama. To protect his children from his wife Kaikeyi, who wished to promote her son Bharata, Dasharatha sent the three to a hermitage in the Himalayas for a twelve-year exile. There is no Ravan in this version i. But, Ravana appears in other Buddhist literature, the Lankavatara Sutra. Jain versions of the Ramayana can be found in the various Jain agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana story of Padmaja and Rama , Padmaja being the name of Sita , Hemacandra 's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra hagiography of 63 illustrious persons , Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara.
According to Jain cosmology , every half time cycle has nine sets of Balarama , Vasudeva and prativasudeva. Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana are the eighth baladeva , vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively.
Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half time cycle and jointly rule half the earth as half- chakravartins. Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the jinacharitra lives of jinas by Acharya Bhadrabahu 3d—4th century BCE. Perhaps this is because Rama, a liberated Jain Soul in his last life, is unwilling to kill. Kaikeyi lay sprawled on the floor of her chamber, her hair disshevelled, her jewels scattered across the floor, and she was weeping and lamenting.
Dash a rat fell to his knees and stroked her hair gently, asking, 'Who has upset you, my beloved queen''. If you choose not to grant them, I shall kill myself.
Dasharat remained silent a moment as that battle flashed through his mind. The god Indra had asked Dasharat to fight the demon Shambar who was plaguing the gods.
Dasharat had defeated the demon armies but was left lying severely wounded on the battlefield with little chance of living.
Kaikeyi, who had insisted on accompanying him to battle, had him carried to her tent and nursed him night and day until he recovered. The king had been so grateful he had promised to grant Kaikeyi two wishes. Let me save my wishes and ask for them when I need them. Dasharat was broken-hearted. He could not believe that Kaikeyi, who had always said she loved Ram more than her own son and had often suggested he should be king, had now changed her mind completely. He argued with Kaikeyi throughout the night, but Kaikeyi's mind was made up and Dasharat knew he must keep his promise to Kaikeyi and her father.
When morning came, the king was utterly worn down. He was distressed by the idea of losing his beloved son in his own old age, and could not bring himself to speak to Ram when the young prince came to get his blessing before the coronation.
Ram was concerned, 'Have I upset my father'' he wondered, then looking at Kaikeyi's harsh expression, he asked. I will leave immediately. Bharat will make an able king. Ram sadly said farewell to his heartbroken father and then went to Queen Kaushaliya, his real mother, to say goodbye to her. He explained how the decision had come about and begged her to be kind to Dasharat who was deeply unhappy at Ram's exile.
Although grief-stricken, Kaushaliya agreed with Ram, praying for his happiness in exile. Then Ram went to say goodbye to Sita and to comfort her but Sita refused to be separated from her husband. How can I be happy living in luxury without you'' His brother Lakshman also refused to stay behind and that very day they left the kingdom.
Ram led the way, dressed like a holy man, with tangled hair and a leopard skin to cover his body. The only sign that he was a warrior was the quiver of arrows which hung from his shoulder and his precious bow.
The three left the city of Ayodhya and made their way across the River Ganges and up into the mountains and forests of the Himalayas where they lived a holy life, filled with fasting and prayer. The months passed and one day Ram was meditating when he sensed a disturbance in the forest.
The birds were flying from the trees and animals were scurrying away to hide in the undergrowth. Lakshman climbed to the top of a tall tree to see what was causing the turmoil. Ram shook his head wisely. He probably wants us to come back to Ayodhya. Ram's words calmed his quick-tempered brother. When Bharat arrived he greeted his brothers with affection.
Then he said, 'You should be in Ayodhya, Ram. Our father has died of grief and our country needs its true king. You should be on the throne, ruling the kingdom. Let me remain here to serve out your exile fo r you while you return to Ayodhya.
It is our duty to ensure his word is kept. Reali zing this, Bharat held out a pair of golden slippers he had brought with him.
But if you do not return in fourteen years, I will burn myself on a funeral pyre. After Bharat had left, Ram decided to move o n. The three travelled deeper into the forest and soon met some hermits. We know you are Ram the mighty warrior. We want you to give us your word that you will protect us from these fearsome monsters.
Ram promised to defend the holy men and the three continued their journey into the forest until they met a wise man named Sutikshin. But beware of a gazelle who plays in a forest glade for n IS a sign of ill fortune. Ram decided to build a home with Sita and Lakshman on the shores of the beautiful lake. For ten years they lived there and Ram continued to keep his promise to protect the holy men from the monsters and demons of the forest.
He did it so well that eventually there were no more monsters. Ram and his companions decided to set out on their travels. On their way, they met an enormous vu lture who introduced himself as J atayu, the king of birds. Ram thanked Jatayu and the three continued on their way until they arrived at a place called Panchavati where they decided to stay.
But they were not destined to remain there long. A demoness named Shurpanakha saw Ram one day and fell in love with him. She transformed herself into a beautiful young woman and went to Ram.
Slighted, Shurpanakha tried to kill Sita, but Lakshman cut off her ears and nose and chased her into the forest.
Shurpanakha went to Janastan, the land of demons, ruled by her brother Khar. I thirst for the blood of Sita and Lakshman. He assembled an army of 14, demons and set out for Panchavati.
The noise of the approaching army was so loud that the gods in their heavens heard it and looked down to see what was happening. When Ram saw the army, he hid Sita and Lakshman in a cave and as the demons came nearer, he shot a stream of arrows from his mighty bow.
Soon only Khar was left alive. With a strength born from despair, Khar pulled the bow out of Ram's grasp and shattered Ram's shield with his club. Then he uprooted a huge tree and hurled it at Ram, who leaped out of its path just in time. Ram swiftly picked up the bow and again showered Khar with a volley of arrows.
Finally Khar, the last of the demon army, was also killed and the realm of the demons was utterly desolated. In Heaven the gods heaved a sigh of relief. The mission for which Ram had been put on Earth was soon to be accomplished. The kingdom of Lanka had been created for Kuvera, the god of wealth, and even its humblest buildings were made from solid gold: Vishvakarma, the gods' architect, had originally suspended it in mid-air, but it now lay in the middle of the Indian Ocean where it had been flung by Vayu, ihe wind god, in a moment of fury.
It is still there today and is known as the island of Sri Lanka. The capital of Lanka was protected by seven broad moats and seven enormous walls of stone and metal, but Kuvera no longer ruled there because many years before, the demon Ravan had defeated him and taken the kingdom of Lanka from him.
Ravan was the brother of the demons Shurpanakha and Khar and was the creature most hated by the gods. His mother was a demoness but his father was a Brahmin who had shown him how to pray and fast.
He had prayed and fasted so devotedly that the god Brahm a was compelled to grant him a special wish in payment. Ravan had wished to be made invulnerable to attack by any god or demon. Ravan was terrifying to look at, for he had twenty arms and ten heads.
His teeth shone pale gold like the light of a crescent moon. His mountainous body was covered with the ugly scars of a million battles with gods and demons. Ravan could split open mountains, stir up the seas and tear the sun and moon from the sky. Since no god could hurt him, Ravan humiliated the gods by forcing them to do menial tasks in his palace.
Vayu the wind god swept the floors for him; Kuvera the god of wealth supplied him with gold ; Varuna the sea god brought him water and Agni the fire god was his cook. Ravan was rapidly becoming the most powerful of all creatures until Vishnu found a solution. When Ravan had forced Brahma to grant him his wish, he had asked only for protection against the gods and demons ; he had been too arrogant to feel threatened by mere men and animals.
This gave Vishnu an id ea. He himself would be reborn to King Dasharat in his seventh incarnation as his eldest son, Rama-chandra, and as a man he would bring about the downfall of this all-powerful demon.
He would not, however, be able to remember his previous existence as a god and would have to rely upon his human ability and courage alone. So, while Ram acted out his destiny, the gods bided their time, secure in the knowledge that one day they would be free of Ravan.
Meanwhile, Ravan lived in luxury in the beautiful kingdom of Lanka. One day, Ravan was sitting in his court with his many wives when he heard the sounds of hysterical bellows and Shurpanakha burst into the room. Ram's beauty attracted me and l turned myself into a beautiful woman to tempt him. She is more virtuous and lovely than any woman ever known. Ravan immediately desired Sita for himself and decided to seize her at once.
He summoned his magic chariot and flew across the ocean to the place where a demon named Marich lived. You cannot defeat him. It is your place to obey. H e gave Marich careful instructions and took him to Panchavati where Ram and his wife and brother were living. There Marich transformed himself into a golden deer and began to graze peacefully in the clearing by Ram's home.
Sita caught sight of the deer as she walked among the flowers. It looked at her with melting, sad eyes and she became enchanted by it. Catch it and bring it to me so that I will always be able to look at it. Lakshman also tried to reason with her, explaining that the gazelle might be one of the few demons left, but Sita did not believe there was any danger and finally Ram agreed to catch the deer for her. However, he told Lakshman not to leave Sita's side and drew a circle around her.
Do not step out of it until I return with the deer,' he warned and left to try and catch the lovely animal. The chase was long but at last Ram was close enough to take aim. He intended only to wound the animal slightly so that he could catch it but he misfired and his arrow sank deep into the deer's body. As it fell to the earth, it cried out in Ram's voice, 'Ah, Lakshman!
Alas, my Sita! Lakshman protested. As the chariot made its way tO Lanka, Sita caught sight of the vulture Jatayu. Jatayu swooped in front of the chariot, spreading his massive wings to bar Ravan's progress, but the demon drew his sword and sliced off one of the bird's wings so that he tumbled bleeding to the ground, calling to Sita.
As the chariot flew on, Sita threw her jewellery tO the ground, hoping to create a trail for Ram to follow. As they passed over a mountain peak far below, she saw a group of powerful monkeys and threw down ro them some jewellery and a scarf made from cloth of gold in the hope that if Ram came that way in his search, the monkeys would show them to him. All too soon, they arrived at Lanka where Ravan installed Sita in his palace and started tO court her in the hope that she would agree to be his bride.
Sita however had no intention of giving in to Ravan.
She veiled her face and reminded him repeatedly that she was the wife of Ram and that she would never agree ro marry him even if the penalty was death.
Finally, Ravan grew weary of her resistance and threw her into a grove of ashoka trees where she was guarded by female demons. Sita waited desperately for Ram to come and save her, but many months passed. Her clothes grew tattered and dirty, her hair lost its shine, and her already slender bodr wasted away until she was scarcely more than skin and bone.
Still Ram did not come.