Baisakh Jestha Ashad Shrawan Bhadra Ashoj Kartik Mangshir Poush Magh Falgun Chaitra. Dashain Tihar Chath Teej Baisakh Download Baisakh Month Calendar In this page you can download nepali calendar from the year to both pdf and pngs. That means you can download nepali calendar pdf and png images along with , , , and B.S. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4.

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Nepali Calendar Pdf

You can print or download Nepali calendar B.S for each individual nepali months. Nepali Calendar PDF includes nepali festivals like dashain, tihar and. Page 2. Page 3. http:// Page 4. Page 5. http://nepalipatro. com. Download Nepali Calendar BS PDF - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Nepali calender

Correspondence should be addressed to Govinda Paudel ; moc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Air pollution has been a major problem of 21st century for both developed and developing world. It has a negative impact on various environmental aspects which directly or indirectly affect the quality of human health. Nepal, especially Kathmandu, in the current situation, is observing rapid urbanization and various infrastructure development projects. As a result, these sorts of human activities have been responsible for increasing air pollution in an enormous rate inside Kathmandu Valley. Chronic exposure of deteriorated air increases the chance of Noncommunicable Disease NCD like lung disease, heart disease, and cancers. Short term exposures also invite respiratory diseases and allergy. This review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the threat of air pollution on public health and discuss the sources of air pollutants in Kathmandu. Introduction Kathmandu Valley, well known as city of temples, has now transformed itself into city of pollution. The city of temples is now clad in dust and smoke. The pristine blue hills and the crisp blue sky that covered the valley just about two decades ago now appear gray and hazy due to the stagnant smog that hovers over them. Kathmandu has a population density of 13, per km2 [ 1 ] as of data recorded by Central Bureau of Statistics in , with population growth rate of 4. Such a high population in the valley is due to its being the capital city and people from all over the country throng to the city in pursuit of better life and opportunities.

It differs from Mini and Small Nepali Calendar thats because it provides tithi, festivals, events on the calendar days. In Extended Nepali Calendar the holidays,festivals, bratabanda dates, Pasni dates, Marriage dates are appended at the last of calendar. All these tools are available to embed on external websites in our utitlities page.

See More.. You can embed the clock in your webwite as well. To embed please visit our utilities page. There are various designs of the clock we provide.

Some clock are large and some are small. Each clock provides the current date in Nepali as well as current time of Nepal.

In small clock we have provided Nepali Time and Date in different way. To see Nepali Time and Date in small clock hover the mouse over the clock and you can get the current Nepali Date and Time. You can also embed the Nepali Date Conversion tool into your website by coping the code we provide from our utilities page.

The Nepali Calendar Date Converter is a free tool that can be used by any person living anywhere and can embed into their website without any delay. Nepali Date Converter can convert wide range of Dates. We provide very efficient and faster mechanism for converting dates between BS and AD. Since, this is an official Nepali Calendar we have included all the festivals of Bikram Sambat.

In addition to this we have included events and holidays list.

We provide the exact date for the Nepali festivals, events and holidays as provided by the Ministry of Information Department of Nepal. National Holidays: Nepal is multicultural, ethnic and multi-lingual country. There are many national holidays in Nepal. This calendar application provides the list of all the holidays of current year BS.

As Nepal is a multicultural country this calendar is also multicultural Calendar. This calendar includes the Nepali date simutaneously with the English dates on each day, month or year.

The Threat of Ambient Air Pollution in Kathmandu, Nepal

In addition we have made calendar, festivals, holidays, clock, date conversion tools available to everyone free of cost. This makes the valley particularly vulnerable to air pollution. World Health Organization WHO defines air pollution as contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Common sources of air pollution are household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities, and forest fires [ 7 ].

Air pollution is a complex mixture of thousands of components, majority of which include airborne Particulate Matter PM and gaseous pollutants like ozone O3 , nitrogen dioxide NO2 , volatile organic compounds like benzene , carbon monoxide CO , sulfur dioxide SO2 , etc. A variety of respiratory and other diseases, which can also be fatal, are caused by outdoor and indoor air pollution [ 7 ]. High rate of PM10 associated mortality and respiratory illness are found in children and adults [ 11 ].

On the other hand PM2. It has been shown that PM2. The high concentration of CO forms carboxyhemoglobin COHb and exacerbates heart attack and also affects nervous system, NO2 causes bronchitis and bronchopneumonia, and SO2 causes eye irritation, shortness of breath, chronic bronchitis, asthma, various heart diseases, lung disease, cancer [ 11 ], and conjunctivitis [ 17 ].

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O3 is associated with stimulation of transcription factors and increased expression of cytokine and adhesion molecules which lead to the development of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases [ 18 — 20 ]. Air pollution has been emerging as a major threat to the whole ecosystem. Geographically, Nepal is a small landlocked country sandwiched between two giant countries India and China.

Though these two countries have been emerging as supreme economic powers, they still struggle in managing their environmental air quality. China a rapidly developing country equally suffers from air pollution.

Rapid industrialization and high energy consumption have been the major reasons of air pollution in China. Cities such as Jingjinji, Beijing, Tianjin, and Chongjin and northwest part are the places that are highly polluted [ 27 ].

It was found that average PM2. In Nepal, along with the rapid and uncontrolled urbanization and haphazard developmental projects, people are being victimized with serious airborne diseases.

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Though few studies and publications have been done regarding air pollution in Kathmandu, the city has now been regarded as severely polluted place [ 30 ]. This article hence emphasizes highlighting the effects, sources, status, and threats of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Sources A variety of factors are responsible for deteriorating the quality of air. Nepal is a rapidly urbanizing country. A data of shows 4.

This trend is increasing rapidly and it is estimated that urban population will reach 60 million by [ 32 ].

Subsequent increase in number of vehicles is one of the main culprits of air pollution [ 33 , 34 ]. Kathmandu Valley has seen a rapid increase in vehicle numbers in the last 15 years. This shows an increment by more than 32 times in the last one and a half decade. The graph shown in Figure 1 illustrates the vehicles registered on different categories among which private vehicles like motorcycles and cars top the list, respectively.

Private vehicles are increasing in comparison to public transport vehicle. Due to lack of an efficient public transport system, many residents have chosen to download private vehicle. Emissions from vehicles are particularly toxic as diesel powered vehicles, which are considered deadly pollutant and carcinogen, are more numerous than the petrol powered ones.

This fact agrees with the report of WHO where it has stated that low and middle income countries suffer superfluously from transport generated pollution due to old and inefficient diesel powered vehicles [ 35 ].

Besides vehicles, haphazard digging of road for currently ongoing Melamchi water project, brick kilns, unplanned expansion of roads, ill-managed dumping of building materials on the busy road sides, and the old engine vehicles that race incessantly on the pothole laden roads are adding insult to injury. Figure 1: Registration of vehicles in Bagmati Zone to [ 23 ]. The targeted PM10 and PM2. The Department of Environment is planning to establish air quality monitoring stations throughout the country.

As of today, it is limited in nine places, 3 stations inside Kathmandu Valley and 6 stations outside the valley [ 39 ]. The maximum level of each of these parameters was seen during winter and spring seasons as shown in Figure 2 [ 24 ]. Figure 2: Outdoor air pollution in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, [ 24 ].

Impact on Human Health Till date, majority of studies on impacts of air pollution on human health have been done in North America and Europe.

Only few studies on this regard have been done in region like Nepal. It has been found that, with high level of air pollution exposure, Nepal, especially Kathmandu, is suffering from a potentially serious human health burden from air pollution [ 30 ].

Air pollution has long been regarded as a silent killer responsible for causing a variety of chronic and infectious diseases. Globally, unhealthy environment causes a total of Every year air pollution is linked with around 6. By annual premature deaths in Nepal, due to outdoor air pollution, are expected to be 24, [ 45 ].

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