All Members of National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 and CED 46 ()WC Draft National Building Code of India: Part 2. After the National Building Code of India was published in , a vigorous implementation drive was launched by the Indian Standards. You may download wm-greece.info (born digital file) or National Building Code of India (NBC ), IS SP 7-NBC (2 Volume Set).
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Name of Standards Organization: Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Division Title of Legally Binding Document: National Lighting Code 64 2 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA ook Supply Bureau Under the buildings Provisions given in National Lighting Code, 'SP ' may. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA Provisions given in National Lighting Code, 'SP ' may also be referred. The following.
The conference co-ordinators and secretariat are responsible for raising funds adequate to organise the main event, meet the costs of invited speakers and offer fellowships to some of the paper writers.
This structure has been very useful in enlisting the commitment of institutions and enabling young faculty, researchers and students to attend the conference. In every successive conference, we have seen an improvement in the quality of submissions, an increasing variety in the themes and subjects that are dealt with, and a wider range of contributors.
Interestingly, even though the conference has been moving from city to city, and region to region, there is a core of about participants who have attended at least two of the three conferences held so far. This includes a wide range of individuals — from bioethicists and ethics committee members to researchers and clinicians who could be considered as the core of the bioethics community in India.
In the absence of a professional association of bioethicists, the NBC has taken the place of a biennial meet of such a potential collective. The NBC has also increasingly become a platform for presenting bioethics research being conducted by different groups across India and even abroad. In a very heartening trend, the most recent NBC showcased presentations on a host of empirical studies exploring various aspects of ethics in research, medical practice and public health.
Reflecting on the nature of the research, one can see that these are often building on the indigenous concerns of practising professionals in the healthcare field.
At the same time, some of the research also speaks to a global audience which is predominantly concerned with ethics in international research. So far, these have been accommodated within the democratic character of the conference.
Thus far, the broad-based organisational structure of the conference has prevented such a homogenisation. However, as the conference becomes larger and more expensive to organise, the demands of funding and human resources are increasing and pose a serious challenge to sustaining this kind of organisational structure.
Another area of challenge is increasing the publication of research in bioethics. While, as noted above, the quality of the papers presented at the conference has improved, the number of those eventually being published has been disappointing.
This is partly a reflection of the fact that publications on ethics have much less academic value than publications in other professional disciplines. Thus, paper writers lose the momentum required, after the conference is over, to take their papers to the publication stage. Also impeding the development of such writing is the fact that institutions are not sensitised enough to regard bioethics as a legitimate specialisation and there are few opportunities for students and professionals to pursue research and writing in bioethics, while being encumbered by their other responsibilities.
The lack of mentorship also contributes to this problem as paper writers often have no peers or faculty with the expertise to provide adequate review or support.
The NBC can only be a catalyst for more sustained bioethics activity at the local level.
We continue to hope that the conference will spawn collaborations and ideas that take bioethics forward at the regional level. However, there has been very limited, sustained activity taken up collectively by individuals and organisations in a particular region.
In specific institutions where the teaching of bioethics has been institutionalised, interest and involvement in bioethics are sustained.
The local culture of the health sector in each region also plays a role in the stability of informal groups of interested individuals formed with the contacts and alliances built through the NBC.
Typically, we have found that those groups which are also linked by other professional interests are more enduring.
However, we have still not reached a stage where these collectives come together formally and organise themselves into an association or forum.
In brief, the NBC requires a serious input of commitment and resources from diverse sources which enable it to maintain its democratic character and pluralistic vision. Perhaps, the formation of a formal structure, such as a National Bioethics Association, is the best possible solution to meet these needs.
The members of this association can provide the stable core of the conference body, even while new entrants are roped in.
The indistinct interface between the NbC core and the amorphous carbon layer is attributed to the solid state diffusion of carbon as shown in Fig. Furthermore, a narrow particle size distribution was observed having 12 nm as average particle size of as-synthesized sample as shown in Fig.
Figure 3 a TEM micrograph of 10C showing agglomeration of core shell structure of carbon coated NbC NPs; b HR microstructure of marked circle in 4 a showing inter-planar spacing of plane of NbC, c HR micrograph of NbC NP showing carbon coating marked with black dotted region on NbC particle and inset shows the lattice fringes corresponding to plane; d selected area electron diffraction pattern of agglomerated NbC NPs shown in 4a depicting poly-crystallinity.
While, concentration of oxygen is relatively low throughout the particle confirming the presence of oxygen centers in the NbC nanoparticle resulting NbOx or NbCxOy. Further, elemental line profile STEM was also taken to observe the linear distribution of each elements from periphery to core which is also shown in Fig.
Extreme left region of line profile shows the higher C content on the left side of nanoparticle which may be associated to the amorphous carbon network. S2 and the presence of Nb, C and O were confirmed along with Cu unmarked peak at 8 keV which is associated to grid.
On the nanoparticle region marked by arrow green colored , increase in the concentration of Nb red and C green is more as compared to O blue confirming the presence of oxygen centers in NbC nanoparticles. Figure 4 Elemental line profile of NbC nanoparticle 10C showing the concentration profile Nb, C and O across the shown nanoparticles marked with green arrow.
Elemental line profile suggests the homogenous distribution of oxygen inside the NbC nanoparticles while, smaller agglomerate contain higher O content than larger agglomerate.
Such variation of SSA and pore volume of synthesized samples might have occurred due to evolution of CO or CO2 as a result of in situ reduction and carburization of niobium oxide by encapsulated carbon. Further, pore size distribution suggested the contribution of high surface area and mesopores of as-synthesized samples as shown in Fig. The gaseous byproducts CO and CO2 of the reactions lead to increase the pressure inside the autoclave.