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The intermediate mesoderm connects the paraxial mesoderm with the lateral plate, eventually it differentiates into urogenital structures consisting of the kidneys, gonads, their associated ducts, and the adrenal glands. The lateral plate mesoderm give rise to the heart, blood vessels and blood cells of the circulatory system as well as to the mesodermal components of the limbs.
This process begins with formation of a primitive streak on the surface of the epiblast. The cells of the epiblast move toward the primitive streak and slip beneath it in a process called invagination. Some of the migrating cells displace the hypoblast and create the endoderm, and others migrate between the endoderm and the epiblast to create the mesoderm.
The remaining cells form the ectoderm. After that, the epiblast and the hypoblast establish contact with the extraembryonic mesoderm until they cover the yolk sac and amnion. They move onto either side of the prechordal plate.
The prechordal cells migrate to the midline to form the notochordal plate. The chordamesoderm is the central region of trunk mesoderm. The notochord extends beneath the neural tube from the head to the tail. The mesoderm moves to the midline until it covers the notochord, when the mesoderm cells proliferate they form the paraxial mesoderm.
In each side, the mesoderm remains thin and is known as the lateral plate. The intermediate mesoderm lies between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate.
Between days 13 and 15, the proliferation of extraembryonic mesoderm, primitive streak and embryonic mesoderm take place. Why can only females have babies? Simi larly, a geneticist might ask how globin genes are transmitted from one generation to the next, and a physiologist might ask about the function of globin proteins i n the body. But the developmental biologist asks how it is that the globin genes come to be expressed only in red blood cells, and how these genes become active only at specific times in development.
We don't know the answers yet. Each field of biology is defined by the questions it asks. Welcome to a wonderful set of importa nt questions! The Questions of Developmental Biology Development accomplishes two major objectives. Put another way, there 'are two fundamental questions in developmental biology.
How does the ferti lized egg give rise to the adult body? And how does that adult body produce yet another body? A single cell, the fertilized egg, gives rise to hundreds of different cell types-muscle cells, epidermal cells, neurons, lens cells, lymphocytes, blood cells, fat cells, and so on.
The generation of this cellular diversity is called differentiation. Since every cell of the body with very few exceptions contains the same set of genes, how can this identical set of genetic instructions produce different types of cells?
How can a single cell, the fertilized egg, generate so many different cell types? How can the cells in our body organize themselves i nto functional structures? Rather, they become organized into intricate tissues and organs.
During development, cells divide, migrate, and die; tissues fold and separate. This creation of ordered form is called morphogenesis, and it involves coord inating cell growth, cell m igration, and cell death.
If each cell in our face were to undergo just one more cell division, we 'would be considered horribly malformed. How do our cells know when to stop dividing? How is cell division SO tightly regulated?
The question of reproduction.
There are many tra n sien t cell types that are formed during development but are not seen i n the adull. Some of these embryonic cells are transitional stages or precu rso rs of ad u l t cell types. How are these germ cells set apart from the cells that are constructing the physical structures of the embryo, and what are the i nstructions i n the nucleus and cytoplasm that allow them to form the next generation?
Some organisms can regenerate their entire body.
Some salamanders regenerate their eyes and legs, and many reptiles can regenerate their tails. Mammals are generally poor at regeneration, and yet there are some cells i n our bodies-stem cells-that are able to form new structures even in adults. How do the stem cells retain this capacity, and can we harness it to cure debil itating diseases?
When we say that today's one-toed horse had a five-toed ancestor, we are saying that changes in the development of cartilage and muscles occurred over many generations in the embryos of the horse's ancestors. How do changes in development create new body forms? Which heritable changes are possible, given the constraints imposed by the necessity that the organism survive as it develops? The sex of many species of turtles, for i nstance, depends on the temperature the embryo experiences while in the egg.
The formation of the reproductive system in some insects depends on bacteria that are transmitted inside the egg.
Moreover, certa in chemicals i n the environment can disrupt normal development, causing malformations in the adult. How is the development of an organism i ntegrated into the larger context of its habitat?
The study of development has become essential for understanding all other areas of biology. Indeed, the questions asked by developmental biologists have also become critical in molecular biology, physiology, cell biology, genetics, anatomy, cancer research, neurobiology, immunology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.