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There are homosporous and heterosporous representatives. The sporangia aggregated in to cones or strobila usually at the ends of branches example Lycopodium, Selaginella. Diagram of Selaginella 23 5. The sporophyte is differentiated in to roots, stem and leaves may be lacking in mature plants. Leaves always large in relation to stem and spirally arranged. Leaf gaps in the stele in most cases. They are Homosporous except in one family Salviniaceae.
Sporangia borne on margins or abaxial faces of leaves, usually in clusters or sori, except in one group of fossil forms, example Dryopteris. They are Homosporous and the sporangia is borne singly at the tips of branches. Example Whisk ferns.
Psilophytopsida These class comprises of only fossil order 5. Sphenopsida The sporophyte is differentiated in to roots, stem and leaf. The leaves are nearly always microphylous and arranged in whorls. There is no leaf gaps in the stem. The sporangia is Homosporous and borne on distinctive sporangiospores in a strobilus, example Equisetum. The stem braches develop at much the same rate as the main axis, therefore dichotomy appears to be the case.
But in reality, the braches are lateral in development and the branching system is maopodial. The creeping habit keeps all the stems more or less in a horizontal plane and the leaves also expand in this plane to form a markedly dorsal ventral arrangement. The leaves are produced in four rows and are placed in opposite pairs, each pain having one large and are small leaf. The larger leaves originate from the lower lateral surface of a stem and the smaller ones from the upper surface.
Each leaf bears a small membranous outgrowth called a ligule which is recognizable in young leaves but which withers and disappears on ageing. Slightly behind each fork in the stem, sooner or later a structure resembling a root develops and grows species, a large tuft of roots may developed at the tip of the rhizospore. A mature fertile plant bears vertical branches which differ from the rest of the stem structure.
They are the strobili, bearing sporophylls all of equal size in four vertical rows. In the axils of the sporophylls, the sporangia are developed. Gymnospermae are divided in to three classes, these are: Cycadopsida, example Cycas Class: Coniferopsida example Pinus, Ginkgo Class: Gnetopsida example Gnetum, Ephedra 6.
Small, brawn, scaly leaves borne on both kinds of branches. The number of needles leaves in a cluster varies from 1 to 5 depending on the species Diagram. Structure of Angiosperms - Range in size from minute forms e. May be simple or compound fruits, dry or flashy fruit - Leaves are megaphylls, large and broad 29 6. Perianth — Represent by two or three minute scales lodicules Androecium — Stamens three, sometimes to, anthers versatile and pendulous Gynoecium — Carpe 3 , reduced to one according to same authors by fusion or suppression of two, ovary superior, one — celled, with ovule, styles two but three in baboos, and two fused into one in maize , rarely terminal or lateral stigmas feallery Fruit — caryopsis.
Pollination by wind. Has scars or shed leaves. Height 45m above Roots — Numerous, fibre developing from base of stem. Leaves — Usually forming a crown, petiole with stout sheathing base. Flowers — sessile, small and inconspicuous but produced in large numbers 12, indicate palm regular, hypogenous, unisexual rarely bisexual , male an female flowers in some inflorescence or in the either monoecious or dioecious.
Pollination by wind, sometimes insects Floral formulae 7. Fruit — a berry or capsule. Herbs, shrubs, trees, twiners, climbers Leaves: Alternate, Pinnately Compound, rarely simple, stipules 2, usually free Flower: Bisexual and complete, regular or irregular actinomorphic or Zygomorphic hypogenous or slightly perigynous Calyx: Sepals usually five with the cold one anterior i. Petals usually five, with the odd one posterin 32 Androecium: Stamens usually ten or numerous, sometimes less than 10 by reduction, free or united Gynoecium: Carpel one, ovary one-celled with one to many ovules, superior, placentation marginal Fruit: Plantae Division Magnoliophyta: Magnoliopsida Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae 33 Diagram of the fruit of Gymnocladus dioicus 1 ,and a flower of Wisteria sinensis, Faboideae.
Two petals have been removed to show stamens and pistil 2 1 2 Diagram of Legume of Vicia angustifolia 1 and Pisum sativum 2 1 2 34 7. Malvaceae Habit: Herbs shrubs, trees Leaves: Irregular, Polypetalous, bisexual, hypogenous, copiously mucilaginous with a whorl of epicalyx Calyx: Sepals 5 , valvete Carolla- petals 5, attached to the base of staminal tube Androecium: Capsule or schizocarp Seed: Endospermic 7.
Compositae e. Herbs and shrubs, rarely twiner or tree Leaves: Simple, alternate or opposite, rarely compound. Central ones called disc florets. They are tubular and the marginal ones called ray florets. They are ligulate sometimes all florets ar of the same kind tubuler or ligulate 35 Disk Floret: Regular, bisexual, epigenous Calyx: Stamens 5, epipetalous attached to petals by their filament syngynesions anthers united but filaments free.
Carpels 2 , ovary interior, 1 — celled with one basal, anatropous ovule, style 1, stigma bifid, Fruit: Zygomorphic, unisexual or sometimes neuter e.
Modified into pappus, scale or absent Carolla: Petals 5 , gamopetalous, ligulate strap — shaped Gynoecium: Family Bambacaceae 8. This family has the following characteristics: The flowers are regular, large, bisexual and hypogynous.
This is gamosepalous with 5 sepals. It is valvate, often with an epicalyx. The anthers are two celled sometimes more. This is syncarpous, with carpels. When 5, the carpels are opposite to the petals. These are small, often very heavy and with scanty or no endosperm.
These are regular hypogenous and bisexual. The disc below the ovary is prominent and ring or cap like. There are four or five sepals free or connate below and imbricate.
The number of stamens varies. They can be as many or more often twice as many as the petals or numerous as in citrus. They are free or united in irregular bundles and inserted on the disc. They are syncarpous or free at the base or united and either or seated on a disc. The ovary is generally four or five locular or multilocular as in citrus, with axile placentation. There are usually two ovules in each loculus arranged in two rows.
This is a berry, capsule or hesperidium. The seeds may or may not have an endosperm. Polyembryony is frequent in citrus Eg lemon , citron, lime, orange and pummelo. Diagram of a Citrus plant. Citrus reticulata cultivar Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae unranked: Angiosperms 38 unranked: Eudicots unranked: Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Subfamily: Aurantioideae Tribe: Citreae Genus: Citrus 8. These are mostly trees rarely shrubs.
The leaves are pinnately compound and the leaflets are oblique. These are regular, often bisexual sometimes polygamous and hypogynous. There are stamens, generally united in to a long or short staminal tube.
There are carpels syncarpous the ovary is superior, it is 2-to5-locular,rarely unilocular, with one or two ovules in each chamber. The fruit is a capsule, berry or drupe. This is often winged, and albuminous eg Mahogany, satin wood. These are shrubs or trees. Many of them are resinous. These are simple or pinnately compound alternate and exstipulate. This is a panicle of many small flowers. The flowers are small, regular and bisexual they are sometimes polygamous, hypogynous to epigynous and usually pentamerous.
The disc is present. There are usually 5 sepals, though they vary from There are as many petals as sepals. The corolla is sometimes absent. There are stamens the number of fertile stamens varies in many cases.
They are free and inserted on an annular disc. These are usually carpels and rarely 5 syncarpous. The ovary is superior or some times inferior. The seed is exalbumenous with a large curved embryo. Eg mango, cashew tree. Anacardium occidentale, cashew 40 Mangifera indica, mango 8. These are shrubs or trees rarely herbs. The flowers are often regular and zygomorphic. They are bisexual, rarely unisexual and hypogynous.
These are like those of malvaceae, sometimes corolla is absent. There is no epicalyx. They are mostly arranged in two whorls the outer whorls opposite to d sepal and often reduced to staminodes or absent and the inner whorl opposite to the petals, being fertile and often branched all stamens is more or less united below into a tube or sometimes on the gonophore.
The anthers are 2 locular. There are carpel often 5 ,syncarpous. The ovary is superior and in 5- to 2- locular, with 2- anatropous ovules in each loculus. The style is simple and the stigma lobed. The fruit can be dry or fleshy and is often a schizocarp. This has a fleshy endosperm, sometimes arillate, example cola, cocoa tree.
It is used for identification of fresh specimens, comparison between floras of different regions. The value of a herbarium depends on the care with which specimens were preserved and mounted, accuracy and completeness of identification and labeling and maintenance so that they do not deteriorate and can easily be referred to.
Equipment for collection and collecting methods. Specimens that have both flowers and fruits are selected. These parts help in identification and classification of the plant. Pruning knife is used for cutting branches of herbs, shrubs and trees. Plastic bags can also be sued as they prevent loss of moisture when close tightly. Field note Book: These include a.
Location e. Etc b. Habitat example river bank, forest edge, open field, swamp etc c. Field observation of the plant example height flower, colour, fruit colour, odour.
Nature of stem juice example milky colour sticky, red, clear sap, thick, watery e. Collection number example 1. Date of collection g. Name of plant if know name could be local, common or botanical h. Association with other plants and its abundance. Between the frames are the folders, blotters and ventilators. Folders are old newspapers in which the collector places the specimens. Blotters absorb moisture from the specimens while ventilators provide air for drying.
The press is tightly bound together by strong straps of canvas or leather and is placed in the hot sun or suspended over moderate heat. Longer specimens are bent into a V or W shape so as to fit them on a standard sized mounting sheet 30 x 45cm. Leaves, flowers parts should not be crouded. Thick organs may be trimmed and cotton paid placed proper pressing. The pressed, dried specimen are glued or gummed to a hard standard sheet of paper.
The paper should be fairly heavy to reduce. Flexing when mounted specimen are picked up. Region of collection accompanied by name of the institution.
Botanical name of the plant with the author citation 3. Locality of the collection 4. The habitat 5. Name of the collector and his field number 6. Collector field observation 7. Date of collection and the name of the person who identified the specimen.
Specimen are filed according to a particular system of plant classification filling is done alphabetically for genera or according to phylogenetic sequence in major herbaria. Specimens belonging to are genus are placed within a genus cover. In many major herbaria, the scheme of technicolour folder is in usage.
The colour of the folder is indicative of the distribution of the plant. The common pest adults and larvae of tobacco beetle Lasioderma serricorne and drug store beetle Stegobium paniceus.
These are controlled in the following ways: Use of insecticides example Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane DDT , carbon disulphide and cyanide gas. Use of insect repellants example Naphthalene balls and Para dichlorobenzene mixed in the ratio 2: Use of calcium chloride in small bottles the mouth covered with lose cotton and kept in herbarium cases to absorb moisture thereby preventing fungal attacks.
Specimen should be handled with care to avoid cracking and crumbing, tear and wear 6. Store specimens in steel cabinets and fire — proof buildings 9. The vegetation in any particular region is easily known. While exploring a new area, the herbaria of previously explored areas can be referred to 3.
Data about the nature, distribution and ecology of any plant of economic or medicinal value can be obtained easily. It can serve as the basis for other branches of botany example plant ecology. Phytogeography, Economic botany e. The animal kingdom is divided into two major groups Group — invertebrata and Group — vertebrata. The invertebrates comprises of animals that do not passes backbone while the vertebrate animals are those that posses backbone The group invertebrate comprises of the following phyla: Platyhelminthes Phylum: Nematoda Phylum: Annelida Phylum: Arthropoda Phylum: Mollusca Other characteristics include 46 1.
Body covering is a stratified epithelium of epidermis and dermis with many mucous glands in aquatic animals. Most fishes are covered with protective scales in land dwellers, the exterior is confined with scales on reptiles, features on birds and hair on mammals.
The internal and jointed skeleton is of cartilage in lower vertebrates and of bane in higher groups. This support and protects various organs 3. Muscles are attached to the skeleton that makes movement possible 4. Complete digestive tract that is ventral to the vertebral column 5.
Circulatory system of a well developed muscular heart of two, three or four chambers 6. Respiration in lower forms is by paired gills while terrestrial forms have lungs 7. Paired excretory organism — kidney. In lower form, it is segmental in nature and drain waste both from the coelom and the blood. In higher forms, it is non segmental and drain only from the blood. Series of endocrine glands that secrete hormones for regulation of body processes. With rare exceptions, sexes are separate The group vertebrata comprises of the phylum chordata with the following major classes Pisces Fish , Amphibian Amphibians Reptilia Reptiles , Aves Birds and Mammalia mammals 47 Cnidaria or coelenterata - Tissue grade of organization - Simple aquatic animals, mostly marine with few fresh water forms example Hydra.
Polyp is sessile and is the asexual form of zooid while medusa is free swimming and is the sexual zooid - Reproduction is both asexual and sexual. Asexual is by budding and sexual occurs by means of sperm and ova.
Hydrozoa - Solitary or colonial - Asexual polyp and sexual medusae present medusae with a velum. Freshwater from include Hydra. Marine mostly e. Scyphozoa - Solitary - Polyp stage reduced or absent - Bell shaped medusa without a velum - All are marine. Anthozoa - Solitary or colonial - Exclusively marine forms - All polyps, no medusoid stage - Found attached to stones, seaweed or should e.
Body is cylindrical tube with lower and classes to form based disc or fort used for attaching objects and locomotion. The opposite and free oral end contain mouth on a conical hypostome encircled by 6 — 10 slender tentacles. Mouth leads into a digestive cavity or gastrovasculer cavity or interact. Nematocysts are found throughout the epidermis especially on the tentacles. At times, it beers other rounded projections, the ovaries or tests concerned with sexual reproduction Turbellaria —entirely free living Class: Trematoda entirely parasitic Class: Black in colour, up to 15mm long.
Body is broad in front than at the back Where it roundly tapered and became extremely flattened. Has a definite front end, upper dorsal surface and lower ventral surface which is applied to the 50 substratum. Eyes are found near the anterior end. Mouth is at the ventral surface and of the only opening to the gut. Adult has a flattened, oval shaped structure 2.
Anterior region has a triangular projection at the apex — main and is surrounded by oral sucker. Ventrally at the base of the projection is a rounded ventral sucker. Between the two suckers is a shallow depression genital atrium. Posteriorly is a minute, terminal excretory pore. Body is covered by a tough cuticle. Mouth leads into a short buccal cavity followed by muscular pharynx and a narrow oesophagus which fork into two blind branches leading to posterior region and given off numerous lobed caeca.
Tissue nematodes are transmitted by insect vector only while intestinal nematodes are soil transmitted Nematodes are divided into two main groups based on phasmids caudal sensory structure 1. Male has one spicules example, Trichuris trichiura whipworm in soil, Trichinella spiralis fund in undercooked or raw meat, 2. Members have phasmids, male has two spicules example, Ancylostoma duodenale hookworm Dracunculus medinensis Guinea worm Ascaris Lumbricoides roundworm Structure of T.
Spiralis Small cylindrical worm pointed anteriorly and rounded posteriorly, female is 3mm long and 80cm wide, male is 1. In male, the tail end curves sharply towards the ventral surface, shows a pair of blister copulatory spicules protruding from the cloaca which is situated a centimeter from the tip of the tail. Three lips guard the entrance of the mouth.
Body is encased in a tough but smooth cuticle which is semitransparent so that some of the internal organs are seen through it. There are three main classes Class: Polychaeta - Largest class of annelids - Mostly marine with few found in brackish water, freshwater and moist soil.
Oligochaeta - Terrestrial or freshwater habitat. No parapodium - Hermaphrodite, cross fertilization - Clitellum present at sexual maturity - Eggs are deposited in cocoon.
Arthropoda Jointed limbs In terms of number of species and individuals, this phylum surpass any other phylum. This forms the exoskeleton. It is in a state of flux and may always remain. Divided into four subphyla 1. Subphylum — Trilobita extinct 2. Subphylum — Chelicerata consisting of the class: Arachnida, Merostomate and Pycnogonida 3. Subphylum — Crustacean 4. The opisthosoma is divided into a Mesosoma with 5 or 6 pairs of lamilli form appendages of which the 1st form a genital operculum while others are biramous and bears gills and a Metasoma without appendages and with a telson.
Horseshoe crab Class: Arachnida e. The remaining four pairs are legs. Posterior opisthosoma makes up the abdomen. The genital opening is on the anterior part of the opisthosoma. Subphylum — Uniramia Class — insecta e.
Mollusca General Characteristics Second only to arthropods in terms of abundance - Display a belvildening diversity in form despite sanitarily in basic morphology - Range in size from minute of few mm half mm snails to giant squids which is over 15m long exclusive of tentacles that is 6m in circumference 59 and weighing 2 — 3 tonnes.
Includes the small flattened chitins which creep about on rocks of sea share, staggering variety of bivalves, snails slugs and peculiar borrowing tooth shell of sandy of muddy substratum.
The most highly evolved are the predatory cephalopods Octopus, squids and cuttlefish. The skin of the visceral hump is called the mantle which grows downward posteriorly to cover a cavity called mantle cavity into which opens the anus, the excretory and reproductive duct. The mantle secretes the shell. Monoplacophora 2. Amphineura 3. Scaphopoda 4.
Models of the specimens as available in the museum. Dissecting kits. Draw and label the dissections in 4. Teacher's Observe under microscope and draw. Dissention guides on the various specimens available and dissenting kit.. General Principles of Chemistry Course Code: STC Credit Hours: General Objectives 1. Understand the arrangement of elements in the periodic table 3.
Understand chemical thermodynamics 4. Understand the properties and reactions of acids, bases and salts 5. Understand the fundamental concept of oxidation and reduction reactions 6. Understand surface phenomena and colloidal systems 7. Understand chemical equilibrium Understand atoms molecules, composition and structure On completion of this course, the student should be able to: Lectures Lectures Blackboard Chalk Molecular models resources View the visible emission spectra of several metals in some of their compounds Interpret the mass spectrum of representative elements such as Oxygen, Carbon, Chlorine etc.
Lecture classroom resources 2. Understand chemical Thermodynamics 3. Lecture classroom resources Investigate the reactivity of group 2 metals i Mg. Guide students Teacher supervises and guides students in the laboratory Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, water, dilute hydrochloric acid test tubes etc Copper foil, tongs, Bunsen Chemicals calorimeter Glassware etc.
Understand the properties and reactions of acid, bases and salts. Define acid, bases and salts and teach to identify them in equations Explain dissociation constant and derive expression for it Work out simple calculations on degree of dissociation of weak acid Carry out acid base titration by using conductance meter Identify indicators and use indicators in acid base titration Measure the ph of solutions by using colour charts, indicators and ph meter Determine experimentally the strengths of acids and bases in relation to structure e.
Specific Learning Teacher's Lectures Measure pka of a weak acid via titration Titrate a weak acid by using a strong base. Plot the results and observe the region of buffering and the end point. Calculate the solubility product of silver acetate in water and solutions of varying concentrations of sodium nitrate. General Objectives: Understand surface phenomena and colloidal systems 6. Specific Learning Teacher's Assessment: Sienko and R.
Plane Mc Graw Hill Inorganic Chemistry I Course Code: Understand and be able to use stoichiometry in chemical reactions: Mole-mass-number relationships 2. Understand some transition metal chemistry 5. Understand the chemistry of group VII elements 6. Understand the extraction and reactivity of the main group elements Na, Zn, Ca Mole-mass-number relationships 1. Ensure that UV spectrometer students are chemicals.
Understand some transition metal chemistry 4. Note colour and relate colour to absorption. Acidify with conc HC and repeat. Explain the change in terms of molecular shape. Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe and their compounds. Chemistry AU13 Checklist Before the first lecture you need to register for the following programs: Mastering Chemistry Learning Catalytics Lecture 1: August 22 nd, Syllabus overview, course. Niranjan Goswami Tel. Ngoswami kc. Foundations of General, Organic,. General Chemistry Review Unit Two: Organic Nomenclature Unit Three: Reactions Unit Four: Thermochemistry Unit Five: Electronic Structure of the Atom Unit.
General Chemistry 1 This is a laboratory class which meets the requirements for 1 year of Chemistry of Physics for Core 40 and for Academic Honors Diploma. It covers the basic ideas of chemistry including. Lab 1: Understand the importance of safety in the chemistry laboratory; Learn the chemistry safety rules; Understand what to do in. AP Chemistry Syllabus AP Chemistry is a course designed by the College Board Advanced Placement Program to be the equivalent of the general chemistry course usually taken by college freshmen, with emphasis.
Unit 4: Chemical Reactions 1. I can use moles to convert between mass, particles, and volume of a gas at STP of any substance. I can calculate percent composition from laboratory data or standard. Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. Define chemistry. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science.
Measurement and Units Air Has Mass Air Takes Up Space Chemical Reactions Bonding Ch The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. Psalm Chemistry Objectives Matter, and Measurement 1. Syllabus for F. Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chapter 12 Review p. Use the organization of the periodic. For use with Form Two Schemes of Work: Introduction A.
In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water. How do you accurately measure, using significant figures, in the metric system?
Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1 Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0. The initial concentration of the. Chlorine has an atomic number of Create a Bohr Rutherford diagram of a Cl atom. To achieve a stable arrangement, is this atom most likely to gain. Fawaz Aldabbagh, Dr.
David Cheung, Dr. Paul Kavanagh, Dr. Assessment Anchors and Pennsylvania Department of Education www. Semester and year: Course Number: Meeting Times and Locations: Office Location: Office Hours: Email Address: Practice Test-Chem 1.
Calculate the number of protons in the average potassium atom if the atomic weight of potassium is 39 amu and the atomic number of this element is Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons.
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy. Instructions Answer all. Importqance and scope of May Course Concepts of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton s atomic. Dave DeVol Advanced Chemistry: Structure and Properties August Unit 1: Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces Theme: Relate structure and properties.
Metals Topic Test Part 1: Multiple Choice Choose the best alternative and indicate your response on the answer sheet 1. The chemical equation for the reaction between aluminium and oxygen is: Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes a Electronic structure i Electromagnetic spectrum and associated calculations Electromagnetic radiation may be described in terms of waves.
This rigorous course will prepare you for the AP Chemistry test currently scheduled for May 1 st, Throughout the scope of this course we.
Relative atomic masses of. CHEM Title: General Chemistry I Institute: STEM Department: Chemistry Course Description: The student will investigate the fundamental concepts of chemistry from a theoretical approach and participate.
Titration Principles General Principles Volumetric analysis refers to a collection of methods in which the volume of a solution of accurately known concentration, the standard solution, required to react. Chemistry Final Exam Review Unit 1: Write 0.
See beginning of Section F for abbreviations, course numbers and coding. Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Name Period This chapter covers the basics that you may have learned in your chemistry class. Whether your teacher goes over this chapter, or assigns it for you. In some cases,. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides. The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the.
The learner will build an understanding of the structure and properties of matter. Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: Lab Determination of a Chemical Equilibrium Constant Objectives: Determine the equilibrium constant of the formation of the thiocyanatoiron III ions. Understand the application of using a. AP Review: Predicting Reactions Question 4 Answers For each of the following three reactions, in part i write a balanced equation for the reaction and in part ii answer the question about the reaction.
Unit 1: Lab Safety and Techniques Unit 2: Numbers in Chemistry. Unit 3: Matter SCI. Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate.
When considering conjugate acids and bases, 2 points a Strong acids have strong conjugate bases. Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power: Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics.
Each student is responsible for following directions. Read this page carefully. The hours may. For a simple irreversible stroke the work. Chemistry General Course Information:: The student is expected to Pacing Guide Weeks Physical vs.
Chemical Change, Mixture. Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1. Determine the number of particles and the amount. Each element has its own characteristic atom in which a.
The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f: These ions attach.
Copyright Edmentum - All rights reserved. Phosphorus and oxygen can combine to form the phosphate ion PO4 How many electrons must. General Chemistry: Classification of Matter Define: Some questions have multiple parts. If you are confused or want to check your answers you should attend SGI with this sheet! Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document.
If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to. The force of attractions which holds atoms or ions together is called chemical bonds. Chemical equilibrium; phase diagrams and spectrometry; acid-base concepts; thermodynamics; kinetics; electrochemistry;. Laboratory Experiments for Advanced Placement Chemistry.
Organic compounds are often identified by using more than one analytical technique. Some of these techniques were used to identify the compounds in the following reactions. Chapter 4: Phenomena Phenomena: Many different reactions are known to occur. Scientists wondered if these reaction could be separated into groups based on their properties. Look at the reactions below.
All atoms have a mass number, A the number of nucleons , and a proton number, Z the number of protons.
The Copper Cycle Introduction Many aspects of our lives involve chemical reactions from the batteries that power our cars and cell phones to the thousands of processes occurring within our bodies.
We cannot. Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? Which of the following equations. Desired Results Enduring Understanding Topic 1: Elements and the Periodic Table: The placement of elements on the periodic table. Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among the Elements This chapter presents a qualitative view of the periodic repeating relationships of the elements in the periodic table.
Upon completion of Chapter. She is an experienced Chemistry educator and researcher having taught. Log in Registration.
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