Afan Oromo= BANUCA. Basic Numerical and Calculation Abilities. User's Guide. Copyrights and permissions. All rights reserved. No part of this publication or. 1. to test how far we can go with the available limited parallel corpus for the English – Oromo language pair and the applicability of existing. Statistical Machine. An. Afan Oromo-English,. English-Afan Oromo. Dictionary. COLLECTED AND COMPILED BY. E. C. FOOT, F.R.G.S.. SHED. PUBLISHED WITH THE AID AND.
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Amharic Afaan Oromoo Dictionary - Amharic Afaan Oromoo Dictionary Galmee Jechoota Afaan Oromoo - Amaaraa አማርኛ - አፋን ኦሮሞ መዝገበ ቃላት This is a. Afaan Oromoo English Dictionary - Galmee Jechoota - Galmee Jechoota Afaan Oromoo - Inglizii English Afan Oromo Dictionary Afaan Oromoo Dictionary The. PDF | Statistical machine translation (SMT) is an approach that mainly uses parallel Alignments of English and Afaan Oromo Sentences. ..  M. Hamid, Oromo dictionary: English-Oromo, Atlanta: Sagalee Oromoo,
This makes the Oromo is the third nationality in Africa and single largest nationality in east Africa. The Oromo people mainly practice three different religions. Long back in history, Oromia is the locale of the 3. Oromia has hosted numerous pioneering human achievements including the development of the earliest pebble tools circa b. Inspite of all these advantages, a century of colonization by Abyssinia Ethiopia a back-ward nation itself, has meant that the Oromo people have endured a stagnant existence where ignorance and famine have been coupled with ruthless oppression, subjugation, exploitation and above all extermination.
The Oromo people developed an indigenous democratic system called Gadaa. The Gadaa system can be listed as one of the true origin of modern day democratic leadership.
The Oromo people remained independent until the last decade of the 19th century. In the late decade of the nineteenth century Abyssinians from the north, aided by modern European arms, managed to conquer them. Since then successions of autocrats from Menelik to Meles Zenawi have systematically suppressed Oromo culture, looted Oromo resources, divided the Oromo people by region, religion, etc.
The Oromo people were colonized during the last quarter of the nineteenth century by a black African nation - Abyssinia with the help of the European colonial powers of the day. During the same period, of course, the Somalis, Kenyans, Sudanese and others were colonized by European powers. The fact that the Oromo were colonized by black African nation makes their case quite special.
During the process of colonization between and , the Oromo population was reduced from ten to five million. This period coincides with the occupation of Oromo land by the Abyssinian emperors Yohannes and Menilek.
From the beginning of colonization many were killed by the colonial army and settlers, others died of famine and epidemics of various disease or were sold of as slaves. Those who remained on the land were reduced to the status of Gabbar a peasant from whom labour and products is extracted cruelly and is a crude form life is introduced to the Oromo people and their destiny.
In all spheres of life discrimination, subjugation, repression, and exploitation of all forms were applied and continued until today under the arms of dictator Zenawi. Everything possible was done and being done to destroy Oromo identity - culture, language, custom, tradition, name, and origin.
In short, the general policy of genocide against the Oromo people maintained till today from those days on ward to Zenawi's regime. Today when nearly all the African peoples have won independence, the Oromo people continue to suffer under the most backward and savage Ethiopian settler colonialism. Although the Oromo nation is one of the largest in Africa, it is forgotten by or still unknown to most of the world today.
Unfortunately, even the names Oromo and Oromia are unknown to many and this should not be allowed to continue. All genuinely democratic and progressive individual and groups who believe in peace, human dignity, liberty, equality, and security should support the Oromo struggle for liberation. This time is also a right time to understand the peace and security of the Oromo people is the base for peace and security in the whole horn of Africa. Oromo Language Although Oromo nation has been one of the largest ethnos nations in Ethiopia, the attention given to study their language particularly from historical aspect is remains minimal.
Policy of marginalization was also exercised for the purpose of building a country of one language, religion and culture. Promotion for the language was inspected and strictly forbidden. Therefore, the Oromo language in general and written Oromo literature remained less studied.
Until recently, Afaan Oromo lacked developed written literature and has insignificant written and printed materials. Inspite of this pressure, some literate Ethiopians, foreigners, religious men and sold Oromo slaves to Europe tried to document some sketches of Afaan Oromo whenever they got any opportunity they came across.
These efforts enabled us to take down the origin of written Oromo literature down to 17th century. Let us first look at the early history of written Oromo Language up to before we theorize the current Oromo language development. Literature is linguistically documented facts and ideas through which people used to preserve their deeds and worldviews from one generation to the other Owamoyala, It is also important to note that one cannot separate language and culture from literature that define them.
The sources to study the historical movements of human beings have come from the study of languages that were spoken by the preceding generations as a proto language. This is because, language harbors human culture, knowledge, arts, history and others Isichei, ; Yule, ; Ehret, Among the Cushitic language families to which it belongs, Afaan Oromo ranks first by the number of its speakers.
It is the third among the widely spoken languages in Africa next to Swahili and Hausa Languages. They form the largest homogenous culture sharing common descent, history and psychological makeup Baxter, The Oromo of all these areas could communicate in this language without dialectical barriers Ibid.
Despite these facts, it is denied official status and no comprehensive scholarly study conducted on it. Afaan Oromoo, a highly developed spoken language, is at the top of the list' of the distinct and separate or so languages used in Africa. Of the Cushitic languages spoken in Ethiopia, Afaan Oromoo, Somali, Sidama, Haddiya, and Afar-Sabo are the languages with the greatest number of speakers Afaan Oromoo had remained essentially a well-developed oral tradition until the early 's when the Oromo Liberation Front OLF began to use it as an official language in the liberated areas.
Additionally, the Front adopted the Latin script as its official alphabet. Parole The adoption of a script for Afaan Oromoo has been a burning issue. In the 's both Sabean and Latin scripts were suggested. Until when the Mengistu regime came to power, writing Afaan Oromoo in any script had been officially banned. Although Mengistu's regime lifted the ban and reluctantly allowed the use of the Sabean script, it continued to pay only lip service to Afaan Oromoo.
OLF convened a meeting of Oromo scholars and intellectuals on November 3, The purpose of the meeting was to adopt the Latin script.
The OLF had been using or suggest an alternative Over men and women attended the historic meeting which met in the Parliament Building in Finfinnee. After hours of discussions and deliberations, it was unanimously decided that the Latin script be adopted. Some of the reasons for this landmark decision are as follows: Linguistic Reasons: Writing' itself has passed through three stages of development before reaching the alphabet stage.
The three stages, each of which are very briefly discussed below, are iconography, logography and Syllabary. Iconography consist of drawings of animals or objects. The drawings were disconnected and fragmented, and they were intended to give merely a static impression. Later, standardized pictures were selected, arranged in a series, and were made to tell a story in the same way as today's action photographs do Iconography was common among North American Indian tribes.
Logography is the use of signs to represent word. Chinese, which uses a minimum of characters, is the only language that uses the logographic writing system today. Syllabary is a set of characters which represent syllables.
A syllable is a part of a word in which a vowel sound is heard. For example, the Oromo word bilisummaa freedom has four syllables, namely, bi- Ii- su-, and —mmaa. In a syllabary writing, each sign stands for a syllable of a consonant and vowel.
From the point of view of a linguist who may wish to explicate the sounds of a language, one of the major drawbacks of syllabaric writing is that its characters do not represent the vowels and the consonants of a language separately. For instance, the Latin alphabet was adapted to many languages such as the following: a.
Slavonic languages-Polish, Czech, Croatian, Slovene: d. It was adapted to Somali, Swahili and others. Qubee Afaan, Oromoo also aligned itself with so many countries that use Latin script One obvious advantage of this is that an Oromo child who has learned his own alphabet can learn, for example, the form of the English script in a relatively short period of time. Another practical reason is its alphabetic writing's adaptability to computer technology which gives it "an edge over even the simplest of syllabic writing.
The decision of using Latin Script was made after taking linguistic, pedagogic, and practical factors into accounts. In other words: Global functional considerations suggest putting the Latin Alphabet at the top of the list. If familiarity with it is and emotional attachment are taken into consideration, it is likely that all conventional orthography would be ranked first by the people who use them.
They have adapted the Latin alphabet to their language without fear of incrimination. It is now high time they began writing and producing useful reading materials for their schools and the public. The Oromo people have a highly developed oral tradition which, I myself believes, has contributed to the sharpening of their powers of memorization.
The development of Afaan Oromoo had been hindered by Abyssinian occupation of Oromiyaa. Hence for a long time, Afaan Oromoo had remained as a spoken language. Because of colonial occupation, the Abyssinians made it illegal and forbidden to write in Afaan Oromoo in any script, including in Sabean script. The early writing in the Oromo language began almost two centuries ago. It is the conquest of Oromiyaa by Abyssinia that interrupted its development into full-fledged writing instrument.
Of the earliest writing was vocabulary of Oromo language in in Latin script by J. Ludwig Krapf, a German national.
In , M. Mario Moreno, an Italian national wrote dictionary of Oromo language using the Latin script. In , P. Gaetino da Thiene, a Catholic priest also wrote a dictionary of Oromo language in the Latin script. Between and , Sheikh Bakeri developed a new script. All these significantly contributed to the search for Qubee. This is the first systematically presented grammar book in Afaan Oromoo, written by an Oromo individual using Qubee. This phase of Qubee in its context and use drew upon political implication.
This is the Qubee known to us today. Later in s, the OLF adopted it as Oromo alphabet. It was this Qubee that fundamentally changed the way the Oromo look at their own language.
For the first time, Afaan Oromoo was transformed from a spoken language to a written language in a modern Qubee Latin Script. As the OLF entered Finfinee in and Obboo Ibsaa Guutamaa became Minister of Education for Transitional Government from to , the implementation and its practical application officially began. Obboo Ibsaa Guutamaa single-handedly, as Minister of Education, made Qubee to reach every Oromo schools in every corner of Oromiyaa as official alphabet of teaching and work. That is, millions of teaching copy books were published and millions of Oromo children were taught in it.
Indeed, Qubee brought the irreversible conflict between Ethiopia and Oromiyaa.
In the development of Qubee, in , Gene B. Gragg and Tarfa Kumsa, published Oromo Dictionary. Tilahun Gamta is the most recognized prominent Oromo scholar and educator who pushed Qubee to its height not only as instrument of instruction, but also as instrument of political struggle.
When the Oromos talk about Qubee, Dr. He stands the tallest among his peers. Just click the green Download button above to start. Until now the program was downloaded times. We already checked that the download link to be safe, however for your own protection we recommend that you scan the downloaded software with your antivirus.
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