Ways of Reading: Advanced Reading Skills for Students of English Page 1 READING POWER Reading Faster • Thinking Skills Reading for Pleasure. ADVANCED SECOND EDITION READING POWER 4 TEACHER'S GUIDE with ANSWER KEY Linda Jefries Beatrice S. Mikulecky ADVANCED SECOND. This Pin was discovered by Best Books. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinterest.
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In fact, most students are relieved to have some way to focus their vocabulary learning, a task that may sometimes seem monumental to them. In the steps presented here, students will become familiar with the Word List in the Appendix, page in the Student Book, and be asked to relect on their own language needs. Further practice in the process of selecting vocabulary to learn is provided in the Focus on Vocabulary sections at the end of each unit in Part 3.
These sections also provide teachers with examples of exercise types for more vocabulary development. If teachers wish to give students additional practice choosing words to learn, the reading passages they use should not be too dificult.
Students will learn more from texts that contain some, but not too many, new words. If there are too many unknown words, students will have dificulty understanding the general ideas and will not be able to establish the context.
Reading all the way through the passage irst allows students to get a general sense of the ideas and to establish a context. Research suggests that rereading greatly enhances comprehension and so further builds context. Students may already have noticed words or phrases that are new to them; with this second reading and underlining, those words and phrases get more focused attention. Students may understand the process better if teachers model their thinking out loud with a few vocabulary items in Exercise 1 Student Book, page When students are working on Exercise 2 Student Book, page 41 , teachers can ask some of the more conident students to explain their choices to the class.
Since some students might not recognize useful phrases, teachers might want to point some out in the text for example, a handful of, paying customers, higher education, and get in line in the text in Exercise 1. Students will be asked in Exercise 7 Student Book, page 49 to look back at the vocabulary they have written on their lists and transfer it to their vocabulary notebooks. Then, in Exercise 9 Student Book, page 52 , they will review their notebooks and select words to put on study cards—giving them further opportunities to work with these words.
Studying Vocabulary page 44 Check What You Know page 44 Teachers should take the time to have students read and discuss the list of points here to make sure they thoroughly understand what is involved in learning vocabulary.
These discussion points may help: Vocabulary Study Tools page 44 Dictionaries and Definitions page 44 Until recently it was believed that students should use only English-English dictionaries so they would have to think and study entirely in English.
Many experts, including Nation and Grabe , now believe this is not necessarily the most effective way for students to learn vocabulary.
Even for higher-level students, a bilingual dictionary may sometimes be a more eficient tool for inding a deinition quickly, and if the deinition is in the native language, it may be more immediately accessible and easier to remember. Thus, students who wish to use bilingual dictionaries should be allowed to do so, though they should be encouraged, or even required, to consult monolingual learner dictionaries in English for some kinds of vocabulary work, such as work on usage and collocation.
As it says on page 45 in the Student Book, students would ideally have one of each kind. Another issue for some teachers is whether students should be allowed to write deinitions in their primary language in the margins of exercises or their vocabulary notebooks.
The dictionary used for the exercises in Part 2 is the Longman Advanced American Dictionary, though the information about words taken from this dictionary is typical of other advanced learner dictionaries. Finding the Best Deinition page 45 Being able to choose the most appropriate meaning from among several in the dictionary is an important skill that can be developed with training.
Teachers can easily create exercises that are similar to the ones here, preferably with a learner dictionary, as they tend to include more examples. This will give them practice breaking down long noun phrases and identifying subjects or objects in embedded or other clauses. The examples are from the Student Book, page , a passage from an environmental textbook. Teachers can make a collection of such noun phrases, taken either from the Student Book or from other sources, and ask students to identify the word that is the key to the meaning of each phrase and to the syntax of the sentence.
In these examples, the words are infrastructure, lifestyle, expansion. Vocabulary Notebooks page 48 Teachers should require students to write all the information listed in the example for each vocabulary entry.
Students may be tempted not to write some of the information, especially the sentence where they found the word, as it may seem time-consuming. Teachers can point out that it is this very fact—taking the time, making the effort—that increases the likelihood of students remembering and being able to use new words. Students do not have to write words in their notebooks exactly the same way they are shown in the example.
If a student feels that another system works better for him or her, he or she should by all means use that system. However, it is very useful to keep the words and meanings on separate but facing pages, in separate columns , so students can cover one side and test themselves.
As for the order in which they write the words and phrases, students should be encouraged to personalize their notebooks in whatever way works best for them. Others use regular-sized notebooks and choose categories for iling the words, such as by topic or part of speech. Still others list the words and phrases according to where they were encountered. Teachers who feel that students could beneit from additional supervised work with the procedure for selecting vocabulary in a text and writing it in their notebooks can have students work with other passages that they have already read, either in Advanced Reading Power 4 or from other sources.
Word Study Cards page 49 With their study cards, as with vocabulary learning in general, students should be encouraged to adapt the system to their individual habits and learning styles.
Some students, for example, prefer to use sticky notes instead of note cards. Each day or week, they stick the words they want to learn on the wall around their desk at home, on the refrigerator door, or in another place where they will see them often.
Then they remove the sticky notes one by one as they learn the words. Individualized Testing of Vocabulary Since students are guided to choose their own vocabulary to learn, they will have different words in their notebooks, and teachers will need to individualize vocabulary testing. There are several ways to set up the quizzes: Students can write ten new words or phrases from their vocabulary notebooks onto the form.
Then they should close their notebooks and write the meanings. Teachers can collect the notebooks, make a list for each student, give the quiz in the next class, and then return the notebooks. Teachers can elicit suggestions from students for words in their notebooks that they think would be useful for the whole class to learn. These can be written on the board with their meanings and the sentences where they were found, so the other students can add them to their notebooks.
Teachers can then test the students on these words after about a week. Any of the above testing procedures can be modiied by asking students to write a sentence including the target word or phrase, rather than simply giving the meaning.
Note that the second part of the vocabulary quiz form tests students on collocations. In their presentations, they should write down the necessary information for each word or phrase e. They should also mention any relevant information about the usage. Among the kinds of exercises that students could produce are the following examples: Otherwise, students can use sentences from dictionaries or other sources.
Students can use the Lextutor website to create the cloze. The example below was created from the passage in Unit 1, Exercise 1, on page 40 in the Student Book. Another option is to ask pairs of students to create maps on paper.
The groups and their placement can be according to grammatical categories or other criteria. Students can be asked to explain how each of the words or phrases relates to the key word in the middle. Alternatively, students can be asked to ind as many ways as possible to put together the words and phrases in sentences. Teachers can easily improvise charts like the ones in Part 2, Unit 3, Exercises 9—12 pages 78—81 in the Student Book or simple clusters with the different forms of words pulled from a reading text.
UNIT2 Inferring Meaning from Context page 54 This unit introduces the concept of context and gives students instruction and practice in inferring meaning from context, irst in sentences and then in passages. Indeed, it is not always possible to guess meaning, especially not a precise deinition, from one encounter with a word in context, but it is often possible to get at least part of the meaning or a sense of what kind of word it is—enough to continue reading without having to stop and look it up.
This is one very important reason to encourage students to try to guess meaning. Another is that even a tentative guess can provide learners with a starting point in understanding and learning a word. Each later encounter with the word will help the learner narrow down the semantic possibilities and gather information about usage and collocation. Instruction and practice in guessing meaning will help students make a habit of noticing and using context and allow them to develop a deeper understanding of the possible nuances in meaning and variations in usage.
As with any skill, teachers should explain the rationale behind learning how to infer meaning from context. It is also important to warn students of the limits to what can be inferred and the need to expand on their understanding in future encounters and thus, the importance of extensive reading.
It may help to advise students to read ahead of the unknown word to see if a guess its in the larger context. Teachers should accept different answers as long as they make sense and students can justify them. The more they read, the more conidence they will develop in their ability to guess; as they gain conidence, they will also become more luent readers. Inferring Meaning from the Sentence page 54 Teachers should go through these steps before students complete the Practice exercise on page Then they should do the irst item in the Practice exercise with the whole class, modeling out loud their own thinking process as they look for contextual clues to arrive at the general meaning.
They should not be the focus of instruction or study unless the student has a particular need for or interest in a word. More frequent words were not used here as students might already be familiar with them, and thus would not be able to practice guessing meaning. The choice of less frequent words also relects the fact that students will be more likely to use this skill with less frequent and therefore less-useful words, since guessing allows them to move ahead without wasting the time and energy required to stop and look them up.
Inferring Meaning from a Passage page 62 As in the sentences, students will need to make use not only of contextual clues but also of their knowledge of the world in order to infer the meaning of the target words. The more complex the content, the more knowledge about the context can help infer meaning. For example, in Exercise 6 on page 62, in order to infer something about the word dehydrated they may need to know about the different ways that food can be preserved.
Students may not be able to infer meaning for all the words in the exercises. If they are having dificulty, teachers can ask them to work in pairs to try and help each other come up with inferences.
Remember Box page 65 These boxes appear at the end of Units 2—4 in Part 2 to remind students to make use of their vocabulary notebooks and study cards for gathering and reviewing the new vocabulary terms in the unit.
Teachers should make sure that students follow through. Students whose irst language is non-alphabetic or non-syllabic may be hindered in their decoding of English by the decoding habits they have learned in their native language. These students in particular will beneit from focused learning about the syllabic structure of English words and the way they can acquire preixes and sufixes. Learning how to analyze a word for its parts and becoming familiar with some common preixes and sufixes are useful strategies that will help students expand their vocabulary.
Furthermore, recognizing sufixes and how they relate to syntax in English sentences is crucial for understanding sentence structure and following meaning. Finally, awareness of word families and formation patterns will allow students to develop new ways of processing words in English. The word parts included here are among the most common, but there are of course many others that could not be included.
Along with an awareness of the importance of word parts in English, students need to develop the habit of analyzing words for their parts and noticing relationships among words. It is not necessary for students to learn these roots. Learner dictionaries include this information. However, the aim of the exercises is to provide a range of examples of words containing the various word parts, including some less-frequent words.
However, students should not be asked to produce the sounds of the words unless they have already heard them. Noticing and relecting on the semantic relationship between the preix or root and the whole word will help students remember that particular word and will enhance their ability to make inferences about new words that include the preix or root.
Other dictionaries may include other forms, which are acceptable as answers if students can give proof of their existence. However, students should not be expected to learn them. This aspect of word knowledge has long been recognized as an important factor in luency of language production.
What is perhaps less known is the role it plays in reading luency. In fact, if readers are familiar with common phrases, they can process text more quickly because they can make better predictions about what will come next in the text. This allows them to make fewer ixations—when the eye focuses on a point in a text and sends visual input to the brain—and the ixations will be more rapid.
With better predictions, readers also need to make fewer regressions backward glances. The fewer the ixations and regressions, the faster and more luent the reading. However, the number of phrases in a new language is vast and daunting for a learner.
Given the enormity of the task, teachers may well wonder how to help students acquire this aspect of language knowledge.
As with the teaching of vocabulary in general, the teaching of phrases requires a multifaceted approach as outlined below. In recent years, several lists have been compiled of phrases that are common in general and academic English. These can be useful for teachers to refer to in deciding what to focus on in classroom vocabulary work, but they may be less useful for students, since they are without any context.
Nation and other linguists afirm that the best way to gain phrasal and collocational knowledge of the written language is by massive input of written language—in other words, by reading a lot.
Students need to learn to consider these aspects whenever they encounter an unfamiliar word. Concordance sentences are an excellent resource for work of this type. See Exercises 3—6 on pages 90—93 in the Student Book. Teachers and students can also do work on phrases in almost any text.
See Exercises 7—13 on pages 94— This will help them remember the meaning and usage. Students can further reinforce memory by making up sentences involving familiar people or situations. My sister can never make up her mind what to order in a restaurant. A pay raise is highly unlikely. When it rains a lot, and things get very wet, they become very heavy. A log is a heavy, unmoving object, so this must be a very heavy, unmoving sleep.
Teachers can easily create more exercises like these for students who seem to be having dificulty inding phrases in the dictionary.
Using Concordances page 89 The aim of these exercises is to teach students to notice and analyze collocational aspects of language using concordance sentences.
They may initially be intimidated by the format of the concordance sentences. For this reason, it is important for teachers to go slowly through the irst exercises and give students plenty of support, until they have understood how to work with the concordances to gather the information.
Teachers who are interested and think their students could beneit from work with concordances can introduce more work of this type using any of the concordancing programs available online, including those on the Lextutor website lextutor. Both this last website and the Lextutor website allow teachers to paste in any text for a detailed analysis of the frequency of the vocabulary it contains, both general and academic.
Just as it is important to explain the rationale for vocabulary learning skills in Part 2, it is also essential for students to understand the purpose for learning the comprehension skill or strategy presented in each unit of Part 3 and how it will beneit them. If students are aware of the rationale for what they are learning, they are more likely to be invested in their work and less likely to view the exercises as just busy work.
Focus on Vocabulary Sections At the end of each unit in Part 3 is a Focus on Vocabulary FOV section with exercises that target vocabulary items presented in readings in that unit. All targeted single-word items are drawn from the Word List in the Appendix.
In fact, if students have been following the vocabulary instructions included in each exercise of the unit, they should now be familiar with the target words in these exercises. Where they were not already familiar with a word, they should have looked it up and written down the deinition, the sentences where they found it, the part of speech, and information about collocation or usage.
If students have trouble with the words and phrases targeted in the FOV exercises, this may indicate that they are not following through with vocabulary study, and teachers may want to spend more time with them on the process for selecting and studying useful words and phrases introduced in Part 2, Unit 1.
The exercises also provide students with an opportunity for vocabulary review. Research has demonstrated the importance of regular review of vocabulary, starting soon after the initial encounter. For this reason, teachers should have students do the FOV exercises within a week of inishing the unit. For further review at a later date, teachers can use the appropriate tests in the Advanced Reading Power 4 Test Booklet. The FOV exercises can also serve as models for teachers to create additional materials for vocabulary development—for example, vocabulary cloze exercises.
Reflecting on the Issues Boxes The passages included in each of the units in this part of the book revolve around an issue that is related in one way or another to the topics of fast food or food production. In many cases, of course, practicing the skill involves thinking about the content, but it is best to hold off on general discussions about issues relating to the content until after the skill-focused exercise has been completed.
Some exercises, especially in Units 1 and 2, include some follow-up discussion in the inal steps. In the later units, the discussion questions in the Relecting on the Issues boxes provide teachers and students with an opportunity to shift their focus from the reading comprehension skill to the issues raised in the text.
This allows students to make use of vocabulary they have encountered and to express and clarify their own views. This requires them to talk about their work and so enhances metacognitive awareness. It also gives them opportunities for language practice.
As always in a language classroom, teachers need to ensure that all students participate in and beneit from the activity. Adding the element of competition can increase student engagement and motivate them to work faster and take risks, but competition should never be taken too seriously, as it might intimidate less-conident students. For this reason, teachers should accept any reasonable answers as long as students can justify them.
This can help them externalize their thinking processes, an important skill in academic settings, and develop their productive language skills. Teachers can then complement those exercises and ill the reading lesson time with other kinds of activities from different parts of the book. Skimming involves the processing of a whole text for ideas, which requires complex thinking skills, and for that reason it is not introduced until Part 3, Unit 7.
Scanning, on the other hand, is a somewhat simpler skill though equally important that mainly involves a visual search for a speciic item on a page. Aside from the fact that scanning is a useful skill in itself and one that we frequently use in daily life, the main reason for asking students to practice scanning is to help them break habits of reading English texts word by word and line by line.
To complete the exercises and answer the scanning questions, students are forced to move their eyes very quickly around the page, which helps them grow accustomed to skipping around the text, as is often necessary when reading. Scanning exercises also give students practice with word recognition and visual processing. When scanning a text for a certain piece of information, students have an image in mind of what they are looking for. It may be a certain kind of information e.
As they scan, students try to match that image with something on the page. This matching of expectations about a text with the visual information is a fundamental aspect of the reading process. If the atmosphere in the class is suficiently relaxed and positive, the teacher can use competition to motivate students. The exercises can be turned into a race, with either individuals or pairs competing. The exercise instructions include suggested time limits, as indicated by a timer icon.
The Scanning for Information exercises Student Book, pages — give students an opportunity to write further questions, which can provide useful writing practice.
The texts can be authentic, since students do not need to read or know all the words. Scanning texts can also provide opportunities for discussion about cultural differences, personal experiences, and so on.
Though some of the material in these exercises may contain dificult vocabulary, students will ind that they do not need to know all the words in order to answer the questions. Scanning for Key Words or Phrases page The concept of key words and phrases introduced here ties in with work that students will do in Unit 3 on inding the topic of paragraphs, since the key words and phrases are those related to the topic. Writers often repeat words related to the topic many times in order to help the reader follow the ideas.
Key words are often though not always included in the title. Practice with scanning for key words and phrases can help students become more aware of how writers make use of this important cohesive strategy.
It can also be useful for students when they are learning how to skim for the gist of a passage in Unit 7, since those words may help point the reader to the important ideas. Previewing page Previewing is an essential skill that good readers make use of automatically.
When introducing previewing, teachers can mention that we often preview texts in daily life. For example, we preview the newspaper by reading the headlines—to decide which articles to read.
We preview a letter by looking at the envelope—to decide whether to open it or throw it away if it is junk mail. We preview a book by reading the front and back—to decide if it is interesting and whether to read it as in Part 1, Unit 3. The beneits of previewing as a regular habit cannot be understated.
A minute or two invested in a preview puts the reader a giant step ahead in the process of comprehending a text. Practice with previewing also serves another purpose for students: In this sense, previewing is related to work on reading rate in Parts 1 and 4, and on skimming in Part 3, Unit 7.
In fact, previewing is a form of skimming, but readers generally skim for the gist or main ideas, whereas in previewing, the aim is to get a sense of the type of text and how to approach it. They may be able to guess more than they expect. Using their inferences and information from the text, they then make predictions about what will come next, which speeds up the reading process and leads to better comprehension. Instruction and practice help students gain awareness of the role these skills play in the reading process and conidence in their ability to use them.
Making Inferences in Fiction page The exercises in this section aim to help students become aware of what it means to make inferences and to use all the information at their disposal—from the text and from their own experiences and background knowledge—to make guesses about information or meaning that is not explicitly stated. These excerpts from iction have been included to allow students to exercise their imaginations in ways they may already do in their lives, such as when watching television or a movie.
Teachers can read aloud the excerpts as students follow in the book. However, students should not be asked to read aloud themselves until after the exercise has been completed and they have already listened to the teacher read. If teachers wish to have students do so, it should not be done in front of the class but in pairs with students taking turns.
Inferring Information and Ideas in Nonfiction page Teachers who feel uncertain about the importance of making inferences when reading noniction need only look, for example, at the short text in Exercise 4 page to see how much cultural and other knowledge the writer may take for granted and how much the reader must infer, even in a relatively straightforward informational text such as a science news article. In this way, they also can practice asking and answering clariication questions.
Any answer that a student can support with evidence may be considered acceptable. Making Predictions page Using the information in a text along with inferences made from it, readers can make predictions about what will come next.
This allows them to process the text more eficiently and improve their comprehension. In each item, students are asked to choose the most logical completion for the last sentence of a paragraph. In order to do this correctly, they need to make use of various skills and strategies, including: Teachers will come to a better understanding of the thinking processes involved if they complete several exercises themselves before introducing this unit to the students.
Then they should take the time to go through the example carefully with the whole class. Teachers who wish to provide students with more exercises of this type will ind some in the Test Booklet.
Once all students have completed an exercise, teachers can ask volunteers to read the items aloud and discuss the answers with the whole class. After students have completed an exercise, they can go back and look up words they felt were important for comprehension. Pairs of students are then asked to guess or predict the content of the chapter from each heading or title and then put them in a logical order. Each pair should be asked to explain and justify the ordering. Afterwards, students can be given the table of contents of the actual reader or book and comment on how it compares to their own.
Looking at a randomized list of sentences, students try to imagine the plot and put the sentences into a logical order. Then they read the whole story or passage and compare it with their guesses. Students should then try to predict as much as possible about the text, including the topic and the type of text.
Structure and Reference page Since discourse in English is usually topic-centered, being able to identify the topic is crucial to understanding texts in English. Working with topics is therefore essential in a reading class. Topics and Supporting Information in Paragraphs page In languages other than English, paragraphs may not exist or may have a different function in text.
In English, paragraph structure is important because it is closely related to how the ideas are organized in the text. In order to follow those ideas, students need to have a clear understanding of what an English paragraph is, how it is structured, and how it functions in a larger passage.
For example, English speakers tend to prefer directness in both speaking and writing, which means they usually make their point state their topic and main idea at the beginning of their communication and then they proceed to describe, explain, justify, etc.
In other cultures, however, people present ideas in very different ways. They may, for example, give the description, explanation, or justiication irst and then make the main point at the end. They may never state the main point directly but assume that the reader will infer it from the information in the text. Another characteristic of English is the fact that most writing follows a structure. Students will learn more about structure in Units 4 and 5.
For example, in a typical paragraph in English, we would expect to learn the topic at or near the beginning, whereas in other languages, the topic may not be clear until later in the text.
There are of course exceptions to the general rules about structuring paragraphs and longer passages in English, particularly in less formal writing, such as emails or blogs on the Internet. Students may also come across examples of writing that is not clearly structured, which teachers can point it out for what it is: It is essential for students to complete work in this unit on topics, supporting ideas, and main ideas before they work on other aspects of textual organization and processing presented later in Part 3 patterns of organization, genres of writing, reading for study, or skimming.
For this reason, teachers should approach Units 3—8 in the given order. Talking together about the topic will also give them practice asking the kinds of questions that lead to comprehension. They should focus on the ideas in the passage and skip over new words or try to guess the general meaning. After they reread the passage, they can look up words or phrases that are necessary for comprehension.
What matters is that they accurately relect the important ideas of the paragraph or passage. It is worthwhile for teachers to insist on this, as it is an important skill that will serve students well in note-taking and writing. Teachers can remind students about the scanning for key words and phrases they did in Unit 2 and how this skill can now be applied. It includes the topic and, in some paragraphs, it may be quite similar to the topic sentence where the topic is introduced.
For example, in item 3 of Exercise 4 on page , the main idea emerges across several sentences in the middle of the paragraph: Company speciications cover everything from the size of the pickle slices to the circumference of the paper cups.
When it comes to wage rates, however, the company is remarkably silent and laissez-faire. In other mass production industries ruled by the assembly line, labor unions have gained workers higher wages, formal grievance procedures, and a voice in how the work is performed. The high turnover rates at fast food restaurants, the part-time nature of the jobs, and the marginal social status of the crew members have made it dificult to organize their workers.
Thus, it is important from the beginning for students to write the main idea as a complete sentence, not as a phrase. This requires them to select and reformulate ideas; in other words it requires students to synthesize and summarize. Though it may not be easy for language learners to come up with the appropriate words and structures in English, it can help them develop an active view of text as something that can be manipulated and reassembled in a more condensed form without changing the ideas.
This ability to synthesize ideas is an essential skill in an academic context, and one students will use in later units of the Student Book. Because of the fact that they tend to have many short paragraphs, they may seem quite different in structure from other kinds of writing.
It should be noted, however, that news reporters and editors are often working under the pressure of time and may sometimes write or publish articles that are not well structured nor coherent. It may help students to keep in mind the question: Teachers should make sure that the important facts and ideas are included but can allow for differences in how they are expressed. Grammatical questions that arise can be taken up again at another time.
Teachers can give students more practice by asking them to analyze passages from other parts of the book they have already read. The amount of practice needed may depend to some extent on language background. Those coming from languages where pronouns function in ways that are similar to English will naturally have less dificulty recognizing pronoun referents.
Synonyms and Related Words as Connectors page The ability to recognize synonyms and related words is yet another skill that will help students follow meaning in English, since writers in English frequently make use of them to avoid repetition.
Related words can include hyponyms, antonyms, and words or phrases that are not normally considered synonymous or related to a particular word but can be interpreted as such in a particular context. These topics can be written on the board or the teacher can select some to write on the board.
Then each student or group of students can select a topic, write a main idea, and then write a paragraph. UNIT4 Identifying Patterns page Patterns in Reading The human brain can make sense of information more easily and remember it better if it is organized in a way that is clearly recognizable. In fact, the brain does not work well with random pieces of information that must be stored as many separate items. It works more eficiently with information presented in an order—or pattern—that relates to schema already present in the brain.
This allows the brain to connect new information with other information already stored in our memory so we can retrieve it later. When reading, we can take advantage of this innate human preference for patterns. Good readers know that writers use patterns to organize their thoughts and express them, so they look for those patterns as they read.
Since patterns in writing relect ways of thinking, it is not surprising that writers in different languages tend to use different patterns. Thus, students who are learning to read in a new language need to learn how patterns are used in that language. Research has shown that familiarity with the common patterns in English can greatly improve the ability of students to follow ideas in English text. As students move towards longer and more complex texts, it is important for them to get into the habit of thinking about the pattern and how it relates to the ideas.
In this unit, students will learn about six common patterns—listing, sequence, comparison- contrast, cause-effect, problem-solution, and deinition—and the words and phrases that writers often use with each pattern to signal the main idea and the supporting facts and ideas. Lists of patterns sometimes include two more—description-classiication and argument.
They have not been included here for reasons of space and because description-classiication is similar in many ways to the deinition pattern, and texts based on the argument pattern usually have many elements of the cause-effect pattern. However, teachers who wish to introduce these patterns can ind examples and ask students to work on them in the same way they do with the texts in these exercises.
In this unit, students shift from making diagrams, as they did in Unit 3, to making outlines in order to give them practice in two different methods of presenting ideas. As shown in the outlines for the example paragraphs for each pattern, the form of the outlines can vary in order to show the relationships among the ideas, as suggested by Grabe in his discussion of graphic organizers.
The main or overall idea should still be clearly at the top, but the format for the supporting facts and ideas can be varied to relect the way they relate to one another. Show students the pictures below. They can be put on the board and covered until the class is ready for the activity, shown on a slide, or copied onto a separate page. Give students 60 seconds to study the pictures. The four-part format of. Advanced Reading Power 4.