PDF | On Jul 3, , Omotayo Adewale Osibanjo and others published Enumerate the Human resource management models cut across ranks and files of organization and ensuring that they are gladly accepted and. This book is not just one of the many introductions to Human Resource Management that are published, year after year, for use in HRM classes. Authors of those. Organizations today face challenges in manage- ment of human resources. To provide a current understanding of developments in the field of hu- man resource .
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This report provides an overview on human resource management (HRM or wm-greece.info This work is licensed under a Creative Commons-ShareAlike International License. Human Resource Management. We must ensure that our human resource management (HRM) practices This Guide to Human Resource Management not only encapsulates the vision and.
Clarity rating: 5 The content is simple and well structured. The examples provided for the concepts would help students to learn the concepts clearly and grasp it quickly.
The cases provided at the end of every chapter is also very helpful. Consistency rating: 5 I found the textbook to be consistent. There is not much of overlap between chapters.
The book chapters are arranged in a logical chronological order , which provides an opportunity for the students to built on the concepts learnt in earlier chapters.
Modularity rating: 5 The textbook is divided into different sections and organized very well. It is easy to read and understand each section. The table of contents provide link to different sections, which makes it easy to access the particular section in the textbook. Based on the geographic location, there are various legislations in place.
There are several federal laws that are crucial for HR manager's to be familiar with in order to protect not only the company but also the employees. Important federal laws and regulations HR should know are, The Fair Labor Standards Act includes establishing a minimum wage and protecting the right for certain workers to earn overtime.
The Federal Civil Rights Law protects against discrimination and making any hiring or firing decision based on race, age, sex, gender, etc. The Family and Medical Leave Act gives eligible employees up to twelve weeks of unpaid leave for family and medical reasons.
As an HR Manager, making sure the company is compliant to all the laws and regulations is an important portion of the field and will protect the company from any sort of 'legal liability'. Consequently, HR, usually through representatives, engages in lobbying efforts with governmental agencies e. Human Resource Management has four basic functions: staffing, training and development, motivation and maintenance.
Staffing is the recruitment and selection of potential employees, done through interviewing, applications, networking, etc. There are two main factors to staffing which are attracting talented recruitments and hiring resources. HR Managers must create detail recruitment strategies and have a plan of action to put forward when looking for recruitments. Next, putting the strategies into place is hiring resources , which can be done by extending out to find the best possible recruitments for the team.
Recruiting is very competitive since all companies want nothing but the best candidates,  but by using tactics such as mass media can grab their attention. Here, motivation is seen as key to keeping employees highly productive. This function can include employee benefits, performance appraisals, and rewards.
Employee benefits, appraisals, and rewards are all encouragements to bring forward the best employees. The last function of maintenance involves keeping the employees' commitment and loyalty to the organization. Some businesses globalize and form more diverse teams.
HR departments have the role of making sure that these teams can function and that people can communicate across cultures and across borders. The discipline may also engage in mobility management, especially for expatriates ; and it is frequently involved in the merger and acquisition process. HR is generally viewed as a support function to the business, helping to minimize costs and reduce risk.
In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession , institutions of higher education, professional associations , and companies have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function.
Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. According to Bramham , objectives of HRP are as follows: 1. To give an organization a broad-forward looking insight into not just the number of employees, but also the type skills and attribute of the people that will be needed in the future. To reveal what training and development activities need to be undertaken to ensure that existing employees and new recruit possess the required skill at the right time.
To assist in cost reduction by aiming to work out in advance how organizational operation can be staffed more efficiently. To anticipate future redundancies and therefore allows remedial action to be taken, such as recruitment freeze, retraining and early retirement.
To facilitate collective bargaining process The information provided by the HR forecast enable calculation to be made concerning , how great an increase in pay or how great a reduction in hours might be conceded in exchange for more productive working methods and processes.
To deal with the planning of accommodation, such as future need for office space, car parking, and other workplace facilities. Helps in implementation of Business strategy: After formulating the business strategy, it needs to be implemented to get expected result.
But, implementation is only possible, when there is availability of skill and competent workforce to perform the assigned task. Thus, HRP ensures the availability of right manpower with competent skill, when and where required. Minimizes future risk and uncertainty: Due to change in environmental factors, like technology y, government policies, etc organization need to change its policies and practices.
This directly impacts the HR requirement of an organization. Since, HRP always monitors the changes in environment and forecasts demand and supply of employees necessary for organizational setting. It helps to reduce the risk of short coming and unavailability of HR as well as risk of excess number of unproductive employees in an organization. Helps in identifying organizational strength: HRP collects all the necessary information related to employees education, training, skills, current positions etc.
It helps to know the exact human inventory available in an organization. It further helps to determine the companys strength which can be utilized fully to capitalize the opportunities in an environment.
Helps to determine training and development needs: HRP not only forecast the demand and supply, but also helps to determine the training and development need for employees. Employees need to be trained and developed to enhance their skill and abilities as per the organizations requirement.
Thus, HRP creates the mechanism to determine and provide training and development facilities for employees. Helps in cost minimization: HRP ensures the right numbers of people in right place at right time. It avoids the cost of overstaffing and understaffing, which helps to minimize the cost. Concept of HR strategy: Strategic Plan: A companys plan for how it will match its internal strength and weakness with external opportunities and threat in order to maintain a competitive advantage Strategic Management: The process of identifying and executing the organizations mission by matching its capabilities with the demand of its environment.
Strategy: The Companys long-term plan for how it will balance its internal strength and weakness with its external opportunities and threats to maintain a competitive advantage. Human resource Strategy is defined as A coordinated set of actions aimed at integrating an organizations culture, organization, people and system. Pervasive: HR strategy covers all the levels and hierarchy of management. It prevails within and between each and every activities performed in an organization.
Link with Business Strategy: HR strategy has close link with business strategy. Since, without linking HR strategy with business strategy it is difficult to use people for certain purpose. People as strategic resources: HR strategy always focus to make people more and more effective to achieve competitive advantages in the market.
Environmental adaptation: HR strategy changes with change in environment. It always focuses on building the competent HR to match the change needs in an organization due to environmental changes. Strategic planning is determining the long term course of action.
It is formulated by top level management after analyzing internal strength and weakness of an organization and external opportunities and threats prevailing in the environment. HR planning is a process of identifying and determining the HR needs and manage them as per the organizational requirements.
The relation between HR planning and Strategic Planning are as follows: 1. HR plan is formulated under the activities determined in business strategy. HR plan go side by side with the strategic planning. It always ensures the availability of manpower as and when required to perform the activities determined by business strategy. Approaches to HRP are as follows: 1. This approach mostly uses quantitative techniques statistical and econometric tools to forecast the demand and supply of the workforce in an organization.
According to this approach HRP comprises of: a. Forecasting future demand of HR requirement for the organization. Forecasting the internal and external HR supply. Reconciliation of forecast and feedback.
Make plans and decisions. It is employee oriented approach. This approach not only forecast the HR requirement but also considers soft function like employee creativity, innovative proactive and work flexibility required to meet the changing demand of the environment. Defining where the organization wants to be in future. Defining where the organization is at the moment c. Analyzing environmental influences and trends d.
Formulation of plans to satisfy the desired changes. Assessing current human resources: HRP begins by developing a profile of the current status human resources. Basically, this is an internal analysis that includes an inventory of the workers and skills already available within the organization and a comprehensive job analysis.
Assessing where the organization is going: The organizations objective and strategies for the future determine future HR needs. Business strategy defines where the organization is going and what it wants to achieve in future.
Thus, analyzing and assessing the formal statement of what course the organization plans to take in future helps to identify and estimates future human resource needs.
Forecasting the future HR demand: After an assessment of the organizations current human resources situation, a projection of future human needs can be developed. It is necessary to perform a year by year analysis for every significant jobs levels and type before the forecasting is made.
Thus, organization should estimate changes in internal supply and external through HRIS and rigorous analysis of external environment respectively. This ensures the supply to meet the future demand. Matching demand and supply: The objective of HR planning is to bring together organi zations forecast of future demand and supply.
The result of this effort is to highlight the area where there may exist of overstaffing and understaffing both in number and kind. Preparation of action plans: Action plans like recruitment plan, development plan, succession plan, layoff plan etc are formulated to tackle over and under staffing and to ensure the HR availability as per the organizational requirements in future.
Human Resource Inventory: Human resource inventory is concerned with telling the organization what individual employees can do. It gathers workers related information like names, education, training, prior jobs, current position, performance rating etc.
The profile of HR inventory helps to determine what skill is currently available in organization that can take advantages of opportunities to expand or change the organization strategy. It also helps in identifying current or future threats to the organizations ability to perform. It is designed to collect, analyze, store, retrieve and disseminate information about job and employees.
This system is designed to fulfill the personnel information needs as quickly as possible in an organization with almost no additional expenditure of resources. Succession Planning: Succession planning is the ongoing process of systematically identifying, assessing and developing organizational leadership to enhance performance. It includes three steps: 1. Identifying and analyzing key jobs: It is based on companys strategic goal. Top management and HR experts identify what the companys future key position need will be, and formulate job description and specification for them.
Creating and assessing candidates: Creating means identifying potential internal and external candidates for future key position and then providing them with the developmental experiences they require to be viable candidates when its times to fill the posit ion.
Selecting those who will fill the key positions: Finally succession planning requires assessing these candidates and selecting those who will actually fill the key position. Human Resource Planning in Nepalese Organization: 1.
HR strategy is not linked with business strategy. HR is only considers as an input not as an assets of the organizational system. There is lack of effective HRIS.
Similarly, effective job analysis is lacking, which leads to inappropriate match between job description and job specification. Poor demand and Supply forecast: Nepalese organizations do not exercise demand and supply forecasting procedure, because they are short term focused and even dont have reliable revenue forecast. Similarly, promotion and transfer are rarely planned. Over staffing in government and public organization: Due to heavily political interference and appointment, government and public organization are suffering from overstaffing.
They appoint employees under the recommendation of dear and near, which leads to nepotism and favoritism. HR demand forecasting techniques: The projection of future manpower needs depends upon the strategic plan.
There are several techniques for forecasting HR demand to satisfy the future requirement as per the strategic plan. They are as follows: 1. Statistical Techniques: Under statistical technique following are the methods that can be sued for demand forecasting. Trend Analysis: It is the study of an organizations past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs.
In other words trend analysis means studying variation in companys employment level over the last few years. Under this technique, organization computes how many numbers of employees were required at the end of each of last few years or in certain departments sales, production, and administration.
This results will be use to project the HR requirement in future.
Ratio Analysis: A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using the ration between some causal factor like sales volume and the number of employees required number of sales person.
Regression Analysis: Under this technique, estimation of future human resources is obtained by establishing relation with either single or multiple variables like past production, sales, productivity, technical equipments etc.
Once, the relation is established between past level sales and employment, prediction of future sale can be used to make prediction about future manpower.
Markov analysis: Under this technique, the changes occurred due to promotion, transfer, demotion, quits termination etc in past are carefully analyzed. Based on this analysis future demand is estimated. Work Study Techniques: Under this technique, time required to accomplish the task by an individual is determined and standard is set. Thus, under this standard the requirement of manpower is estimated.
Judgmental Techniques: a. Managerial Estimate Technique: Under this technique, managers estimate the demand of workforce by suing their knowledge and experiences. There are two approaches to make the managerial estimates. Top down Approach: When estimation of demand is made by top management and is sent to middle and lower level managers, then it is called top down approach. Bottom-up Approach: When lower managers sent the demand estimation for further revisions, then it is called bottom up approach.
Delphi Techniques: Under this technique, experts are used who work independently and avoid any sort of face to face discussion between them.
An intermediary establishes contacts with these experts and collects the information. These informations are summarize and send to other experts by intermediary within the panel and get the feedback.
The cycle is repeated until all the experts reach on certain consensus. And through which, final demand forecasting is made. Nominal Group techniques: Under this technique, team is assigned where member independently write down ideas, related to the organizational problems, which are used for HR demand forecasting.
The team members sit together around conference table and independently list their ideas about future demand. They discuss each individual idea and give their opinions. Finally, voting is done and the best idea is selected for future estimation of HR demand. HR Supply forecasting Techniques: Supply forecasting can be made by the judgmental and statistical methods. Judgmental Technique: a.
Replacement Chart: A replacement chart is used to predict the internal supply of manpower for a year. This chart helps to identify the potential vacancy and position that needs to be filled urgently. This chart shows present performance and promotability of inside candidates for mort important position. Succession Planning: c. Qualification inventories: Manual or computerized records, listing employees education , career and development , interest, language, special skills and so on is used in selecting the inside candidates for promotion.
Statistical Techniques: a. Trend Analysis b. Markov Analysis c. Renewal Analysis: Under this technique the future supply is forecasted on the basis of the vacancies created by the organizations growth and expansion, internal movements of manpower and personnel losses and the result of decision rules governing the filing of vacancies.
Unit 3 Job Design and Job Analysis a. Task: Task is the activities with distinct characteristics, which differentiate the jobs from one another and have a distinct purpose. Jobs: Job is a combined form of similar or closely related tasks. It is a building block of the organizational structure. Position: Position is a level in an organization structure, which determines a persons duties and degree of responsibilities towards organization.
Occupation: Occupation is a combined form of similar job. Job Design: Concepts: Job design is the process of identifying the content of the job and determining the method of doing it. In other words, designing job means improving the conditions of emp loyees participation in the work. According to Byars, and Rue, Job design is the process of structuring work and designating the specific work activities of an individual or group of individual to achieve certain organizational objectives.
Similarly, according to Hackman, Any activity that involves the alteration of specific job or independent system of job with the intent of increasing both the quality of the employees work experience and their on -the job productivity. From the above definition, it is clear that job design is not just determining the contents and methods, but to make job motivating, interesting and challenging enough so that individuals ability and the degree of their participation will be increased.
Benefits of Job Design: Followings are the benefits of job design. Determination of organizational structure: Organizational structure is made on the basis of the authority responsibility relationship of the activities that are performed in an organization. Determination of the activities is done under job design.
Thus, job design helps in designing the overall organizational structure. Motivating the staffs: Job design not only determines the contents and method of doing job but also focus on determining needs and expectation of employees from the job.
Thus, it helps in making a job interesting and challenging which motivates the employees towards work and work activities. Knowledge Upliftment: Job design focuses on building and increasing the abilities of individuals. The tasks are precisely defined and effective methods are specifically determined under job design. This helps to understand about the job and its procedure easily. Person-Job fit: Job design always tries to balance between activities and the skill requires doing those activities.
When the employees and jobs interest match it helps to improve productivity and ultimately achieve the goals. Better Quality of Work Life: Better job design ensures the fulfillment of both psychological and physical needs. This further enhances degree of motivation and personal development.
Thus, quality of work life QWL can be achieved through effective job design. Change behavior at work: Job design focuses on reducing the duplication and repetition of work and work activities by an individual. Instead, it tries to make the work interesting and challenging which decreases the monotony and increases the willingness to perform a job.
This helps to change the attitude of workers towards the work. Methods and Approaches of job design: There are various methods of job design. Some of them are explained below: 1. Scientific Management Approach: This method is suggested by F. W Taylor. Under this method, jobs are narrowly defined. The job is simplified by breaking down the job into tasks. This task specifies not only what is to be done, but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it.
This further helps in work specialization. Taylor suggested that, job should be designed first and then finding or fitting people to the job should be done next. He further argued that doing so; it not only decreases the cost of training and development but also motivates the people toward work. This approach is job oriented which can be used mostly in assembly line where same job are done repeatedly.
He and his associates found that people like to work in those organizations where two factors hygiene and motivator are presents. Hygiene factors are pay, working condition heating, lighting and ventilation , company policy and quality of supervision.
These factor lead to an increase in productivity. Motivators are the feeling of self improvement, recognition, achievement and a desire for an acceptance of a greater responsibility. Presence of motivator factors motivates the employees and leads to job satisfaction.
However, presence of hygiene factors in job not necessarily motivates the employees but absence causes dissatisfaction in the ob and lead to low productivity. Since, dissatisfaction can be minimized by providing adequate salary, improving working condition. However, motivate factors are totally related to job itself. Thus job should be designed in following ways. Individual are given opportunity to plan and schedule their own jobs.
There should be as far as possible direct or face to face communication while working on that job. Reward system should match the work performance. Job Rotation: Job Rotation is the process of motivating employees by moving them from one job to another job for a shorter period of time.
It is normally used to train different skills and techniques to the workers, so that one can work in different jobs at the time of urgency and scarcity. It also helps to avoid the boredom and frustration caused by similar and repetitive jobs. Job Enlargement: Job Enlargement is the process of increasing the work load by adding the same nature of jobs or tasks into a job.
Job Enrichment: Job enrichment is one of the mostly used techniques to motivate the employees at work. Under this technique, employees are free to set their goals, supervise their subordinates and enjoy power over others by planning and controlling their work and work related activities.
This will enhance the employees commitment and satisfaction. Techniques of job enrichment are as follows: a. Specific task: Assign specific task to the individual to develop expertise. Combine task: Add similar job to one to increase job scope.
Self-set standard: Allow the employees to set their own standard and targets. Minimal control: Provide greater autonomy to work and work related activities.
Employee accountability: Make employee accountable for their performances. Feedback: Provide feedback to employees about performance result. This approach is based on premise idea that it is possible to alter a jobs character and create conditions of high work motivation, satisfaction and performance by recognizing that people respond differently to the same job.
This method states that specific job characteristics affect job design. They are :a. Skill Variety or the degree to which a job requires a job variety of different skills. Task Identity or the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Task significance or degree to which a job provides substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. Autonomy or the degree to which job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used to carry it out.