Quantity surveyor practice books pdf

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Textbook. Part of the Macmillan Building and Surveying Series book series ( BASS) Pages PDF · Quantity Surveying Organisation and Practice. Part of the Macmillan Building and Surveying Series book series. Download book PDF Pages PDF · Quantity Surveying Organisation and Practice. and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, . Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Code of Measuring Practice are .. PDF copies of Volumes 1 and 2 of the NRM are available as a free.

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Quantity Surveyor Practice Books Pdf

PDF | 5 minutes read | On Dec 19, , Vikram Kumar and others published Quantity Surveying & Valuation. Book · December with 84, Reads The primary objectives of the course are as follows: i) Exposing participants to the current practices of Wastewater management and challenges. FREE DOWNLOAD QUANTITY SURVEYING QS BOOKS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS ARCHITECTS ESTIMATORS RATE ANALYST PDF PPT DOC FILES EBOOK. New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice i Dedication to Peg ii New Aspects . During the production of this book I have heard major construction clients call .

The BIM Centre acts as a hub for innovation, professional training and networking amongst practice experts in the built environmental sector. These facilities are used by students and for short courses. David Cullen was overwhelmed with joy, astonishment and gratitude when he was awarded a Vice-Chancellor's scholarship for his MSc Quantity Surveying. Modules The postgraduate modules cover project appraisal, methods for financing and procuring construction work and financial management of the design and construction process. There is also a module that develops understanding of the construction industry from an economic perspective and a module on construction contract law. You also select one option from a wide selection of modules that are offered to all our postgraduate students.

Subjects Description The sudden arrival of Building Information Modelling BIM as a key part of the building industry is redefining the roles and working practices of its stakeholders. Many clients, designers, contractors, quantity surveyors, and building managers are still finding their feet in an industry where BIM compliance can bring great rewards. This guide is designed to help quantity surveying practitioners and students understand what BIM means for them, and how they should prepare to work successfully on BIM compliant projects.

The case studies show how firms at the forefront of this technology have integrated core quantity surveying responsibilities like cost estimating, tendering, and development appraisal into high profile BIM projects.

In addition to this, the implications for project management, facilities management, contract administration and dispute resolution are also explored through case studies, making this a highly valuable guide for those in a range of construction project management roles.

Featuring a chapter describing how the role of the quantity surveyor is likely to permanently shift as a result of this development, as well as descriptions of tools used, this covers both the organisational and practical aspects of a crucial topic. Table of Contents 1.

Integrated Building Information Modelling

Construction Technology volume-IV - by K. Buillding Construction Engineering-By Gurcharan singh 3. Fullerton 4. Mahesh Verma 5. Computer Programming and Applications 1. Michael Phiri 7. Computer for Beginners.

Information Technology for Architects and Engineers -by Dr. Environmental Protection Act 2. Rapidex Computer Course-By V. Walker and A. Basic Computer Programming. IS By B. Project Management Organisation. Smith Environmental Management 1. Facility Management -by Prof.

Jain 3.

Benchmarking projects have tended to remain as strategic goals at the level of senior management. The measurement tools range from crude scoring on a 1 to 10 basis to the number of reportable accidents per em- ployees.

For benchmarking purposes, the construction industry is broken down into sectors such as public housing and repair and maintenance. The balanced scorecard Robert Kaplan and David Norton at Harvard Business School de- veloped a new approach to performance measurement in the early s. Recognising some of the weaknesses and vagueness of previous management approaches, the balanced scorecard approach pro- vides a clear prescription as to what organisations should measure in order to balance the financial perspective.

The BSC is not just a measurement system, it is also a management system that enables organisations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action. The BSC methodology builds on some key con- cepts of previous management ideas such as Total Quality Management TQM , including customer-defined quality, continu- ous improvement, employee empowerment and primarily measure- ment-based management and feedback.

Kaplan and Norton describe the innovation of the balanced scorecard as follows: The balanced scorecard retains traditional financial measures.

Because financial measures tell the story of past events, an ade- quate story for industrial age companies for which investments in long-term capabilities and customer relationships were not critical for success.

These financial measures are inadequate, however, for guiding and evaluating the journey that informa- tion age companies must make to create future value through investment in customers, suppliers, employees, processes, tech- nology, and innovation. Often used inter- changeably with measurements. However, it is helpful to separate these definitions.

Metrics are the various parameters or ways of looking at a process that is to be measured. Metrics de- fine what is to be measured.

It is true that defining metrics is time consuming and has to be done by managers in their respective mission units. Some of the metrics are generic across all units, such as cycle time, customer satisfaction, employee attitudes, etc. Also, software tools are available to as- sist in this task.

Metrics must be developed based on the priori- ties of the strategic plan, which provides the key business drivers and criteria for metrics managers most desire to watch. Processes are then designed to collect information relevant to these metrics and reduce it to numerical form for storage, display and analysis.

Decision-makers examine the outcomes of various measured processes and strategies and track the results to guide the company and provide feedback.

The value of metrics is in their ability to provide a factual basis for defining: The BSC approach can be applied equally to both the public and private sectors, although objectives in a public sector organisa- tion will tend to differ, for example financial considerations in the public sector will seldom be the primary objective for busi- ness systems. The BSC suggests that an organisation is viewed from four perspectives, as illustrated in Figure 1. The financial perspective. Financial metrics could include cost: The business process perspective.

This perspective refers to internal business processes. Metrics based on this per- spective allow the managers to know how well their business is running, and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements the mission. Metrics could include: The customer perspective. If customers are not satisfied, they will eventually find other suppliers that will meet their needs. Poor performance from this perspective is thus a lead- ing indicator of future decline, even though the current finan- cial picture may look good.

The learning and growth perspective. This perspective in- cludes employee training and corporate cultural attitudes re- lated to both individual and corporate self-improvement. In a knowledge—worker organisation, people — the only repository of knowledge — are the main resource. In the current climate of rapid technological change, it is becoming necessary for knowledge workers to be in a continuous learning mode.

Government agencies often find themselves unable to hire new technical workers and at the same time is showing a decline in training of existing employees. Metrics can be put into place to guide managers in focusing training funds where they can help the most. In any case, learning and growth constitute the essential foundation for success of any knowledge—worker organisation. Metrics could include percentage of employees satisfied with management, work environment, health and safety.

Also the number of employees with recognised training and qualifications. Generally, as with any management tool, the results obtained ei- ther through the adoption of KPIs or BSC techniques must be taken seriously and must be seen to be adopted.

[PDF] Estimation and Quantity Surveying By D. Silambarasan (Local Author) Book Free Download

Data by itself is not useful information, but it can be when viewed from the context of organisational objectives, environmental conditions and other fac- tors. Proper analysis is imperative in determining whether or not performance indicators are effective, and results are contributing to organisational objectives. Conclusion The construction industry still persists in the practice of rewarding bad behaviour. If a contract is delayed, all participants get their money apart from the client, who has to pay!

There can be no doubt that the pressure for change within the UK construction industry and its professions, including quantity surveying, is unstoppable, and that the volume of initiatives in both the public and private sectors to try to engineer change grows daily.

The construction industry is still, therefore, a substantial and influential sector and a major force in the UK economy. Perhaps more than any other construction pro- fession, quantity surveying has repeatedly demonstrated the ability to reinvent itself and adapt to change. Is there evidence that quantity surveyors are innovating and de- veloping other fields of expertise?

In a report was published by the RICS Foundation which came to the conclusions that there was evidence of innovation especially among the larger practices. The report was based on a survey of 27 consultants from among the largest in the UK, ranked by the number of chartered quantity surveyors employed.

Of the private limited companies this had resulted in organi- sations of a very different shape with a flatter structure permitting more devolved responsibility and the potential for better communi- cation throughout the organisation. The results indicate that in the case of the largest firms only just under 50 per cent of fee income came from quantity surveying Table 1. RICS Foundation The services being offered by the firms include: The remainder of this book will attempt to review the new op- portunities that are presenting themselves to the quantity sur- veyor in a swiftly changing global construction market.

It is not the object of this book to proclaim the demise of the traditional quantity surveyor practice offering traditional quantity services — these will continue to be in demand — but rather to outline the op- portunities that are now available for quantity surveyors to move into a new era offering a range of services and developing new expertise. Bibliography Agile Construction Initiative Benchmarking the Government Client.

Stage Two Study. Auditor General Modernising Construction. Banwell, Sir H. Learning from French Hospital Design. Building Design Partnership. QS Strategies , Volumes 1 and 2. Burnside, K. Casl, B. Construction Benchmarking: An Internatinal Perspective.

Engineering and Physical Research Council. Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment Construction Industry Computing Association Building, 29 Oct, p. CRINE Cost Reduction Initiative for a New Era. United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions Rethinking Construction. Edkins, A. Project Performance in Britain and France: Emmerson, Sir H. Survey of Problems before the Construction Industries.

The catalyst of change 35 Financial News Report finds majors shunning traditional work. Building, 24 Nov, p. Goodall, J. Hoxley, M. Value for Money? RICS Research. Latham, Sir M. Constructing the Team. Leibfried, K. A Tool for Continuous Improvement.

Harper Collins. Lema, N. Benchmarking performance im- provement towards competitive advantage. Journal of Management of Engineering 11, 28— Levene, Sir P.

Construction Procurement by Government. National Audit Office Pullen, L. What is best value in construction procurement? Chartered Surveyor Monthly, Feb.

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors The Future Role of the Quantity Surveyor. Simon, Sir E. The Placing and Management of Building Contracts. Thompson, M. Chartered Surveyors: The Growth of a Profession.

Watson, K. Building on shaky foundations. Supply Management, 23 Aug, pp. Winch, G. The Channel Fixed Link: Le project du Siecle. Websites National Audit Office — http: The supply chain Introduction This chapter examines the paths by which quantity surveyors can deliver a new range of added value services to clients, based upon increased client focus and a greater understanding of the function of built assets including, why new buildings are commissioned.

As will be discussed, many clients who operate in highly competitive global markets, base their procurement strategies on the degree of added value that can be demonstrated by a particular strategy.

The chapter will examine the application of manufacturing philosophies to the construction industry and the role of the quantity surveyor in the implementation of these approaches.

Does your client feel good? For many years quantity surveyors took this to mean appointing a contractor who submitted the low- est, that is to say cheapest tender price, based upon a bill of quan- tities and drawings, in competition with several other contractors. The supply chain 37 price. It is now clear that assembling an ad hoc list of six or so contractors, selected primarily on their availability, to tender for building work, for which they have very little detailed information, is not the best way to obtain value for money.

As discussed in Chapter 1, there can now be few individuals involved within the construction process who do not believe that the design, procurement and construction of new built assets has to become more efficient and client orien- tated. The evidence of wastage, in terms of materials, time and money not only in the short term, but also throughout the life cycle of a building, leaves the UK construction industry as well as its associated professions, including quantity surveyors, in an embarrassing position and open to criticism from all sides for par- ticipating in the production of such a low value product.

For many years the quantity surveyor has been seen as the accountant to the construction industry, a knight in shining armour, safeguarding the client to ensure that they receive a building as close as possible to the initial agreed target price, although in practice, this has been seldom achieved. The squeezing increases in direct propor- tion to how far down the supply chain the organisation comes see Figure 2. The consequences of the supply chain squeeze illustrated in Figure 2.

In turn low profits ensure that few, if any, resources can be channelled into re- search, technological improvement, or quality assurance proce- dures. Construction productivity lags behind that of manufacturing and yet manufacturing has been a reference point and a source of innovation in construction for many decades, for example, indus- trialised building, currently undergoing a resurgence in interest in the UK, and the use of computer-aided design come directly from the manufacturing sector.

However, while some innovations have crossed the divide from manufacturing to construction, there has Feasibility stage Detailed design stage Tender stage Target cost Target cost revised by Contractor allows a for specialist q. Managing value.

Surveying (Quantity Surveying) MSc

The supply chain 39 been little enthusiasm for other production philosophies. However, new manufacturing industry based approaches to supply chain management are now being introduced into the construction in- dustry that enable the early involvement of suppliers and subcontractors in a project with devolved responsibility for design and production of a specific section of a building, with predicted and guaranteed through life costs, for periods of up to 35 years.

The benefits of this new approach for clients include the delivery of in- creased functionality at reduced cost and, for the supply chain members, certainty, less waste and increased profits. Supply chain relationships and management A construction project organisation is usually a temporary organi- sation designed and assembled for the purpose of the particular project.

It is made up of different companies and practices, which have not necessarily worked together before and which are tied to the project by means of varying contractual arrangements. This is what has been termed a temporary multi-organisation. Its tempo- rary nature extends to the workforce, which may be employed for a particular project, rather than permanently.

The problems for process con- trol and improvement that this temporary multi-organisation approach produces are related to: The following quotation, attributed to Sir Denys Hinton speaking at the RIBA in seems to sum up the traditional attitude of building design teams: Normally brought together for a single enterprise, each member has different objectives, training and techniques and different rules.

The relationship is unstable, and with very little functional cohesion and no loyalty to a common end be- yond that of coming through unscathed. These changes result from changes in the business environment. Most manufacturing compa- nies are only too aware of such changes, increasing globalisation, savage price competition, increased customer demand for enhanced quality and reliability, etc.

Supply chain management was intro- duced in order that manufacturing companies could increase their competitiveness in an increasingly global environment as well as their market share and profits by: The contrast between traditional approaches and supply chain management is summarised in Figure 2. The quantity surveyor as supply chain manager What is the driving force for the introduction of supply chain man- agement into the UK construction industry? As discussed in Chapter 6, unlike other market sectors, because the majority of organisations work- ing in construction are small, the industry has no single organisa- tion to champion change.

The supply chain 41 Supply chain Traditional management model Target cost Competitive tender Cost transparency Fixed price Integrated teams Fragmentation Shared benefits for Penalties for non-delivery improved delivery Figure 2.

However, this was not what Latham was calling for, as will be demonstrated in the following paragraphs. Reducing costs goes far beyond cutting the prices entered in the bill of quantities, if it ever did, it extends to the re-organisation of the whole construction sup- ply chain in order to eliminate waste and add value. The immedi- ate implications of supply chain management are: How many quantity surveyors have asked themselves this question at the outset of a new project; What does value mean for my client?

In other words, in the case of a new plant to manufacture say, phar- maceutical products, what is the form of the built asset that will deliver value for money, over the life cycle of the building for that particular client? The answer to the value ques- tion posed above will, of course, vary between clients, a large multi- national manufacturing organisation will have a different view of value to a wealthy individual commissioning a new house, but it helps to illustrate the revolution in thinking and attitudes that must take place.

Quantity surveyors are increasingly developing better client focus, because only by knowing the ways in which a particular client per- ceives or even measures value, whether in a new factory or a new house, can the construction process ever hope to provide a product or service that matches these perceptions. Once these value crite- ria are acknowledged and understood quantity surveyors have a number of techniques, described in this chapter, at their disposal in order to deliver to their clients a high degree of the feel good factor.

Not all of the techniques are new, many practising quantity sur- veyors would agree that the strength of the profession is expertise in measurement and in supply chain management there is a lot to meas- ure, for example: Of course, measuring value is extremely difficult.

One of the tenets of this work is the need to measure success and in particular to move this meas- urement beyond the obvious cash-related benefits. Such generic measures can be useful for the industry-wide comparison but have limited use in measuring project-specific issues. The supply chain 43 the team produced methods of measuring benefits related to the drivers and constraints of the particular project. A related project called IMMPREST Interactive Model for Measuring the benefits from Standardisation and Pre-assembly is developing these tools further by comparing different methods of producing buildings or building elements against the following criteria: What is a supply chain?

Before establishing a supply chain or supply chain network, it is cru- cial to understand fully the concepts behind, and the possible com- ponents of, a complete and integrated supply chain. Of course, the nature of the supply chain varies from in- dustry to industry. Members of the supply chain can be referred to as upstream and downstream supply chain members Figure 2.

In addition good management means cre- ating a safe commercial environment, in order that suppliers can share pricing and cost data with other supply team members. The more efficient or lean the supply chain, the more value is added to the finished product. In a construction context supply chain management involves looking beyond the building itself and into the process, components and materials which make up the building. In the traditional methods of procurement, the supply chain does not understand the underlying costs, hence sup- pliers are selected by cost and then squeezed to reduce price and whittle away profit margins.

An approach characterised by: For example, in Figure 2. In rather more detail, the supply chain for say, fenestration, could be organised as in Figure 2. On the supply side, low uncertainty refers to stable processes, while high uncertainty refers to processes which are rapidly changing or highly volatile. On the demand side, low uncertainty would relate to functional products in a ma- ture phase of the production life cycle, while high uncertainty re- lates to innovative products.

Once the chain has been catagorised, the most appropriate tools for improvement can be selected see Figure 2. On the supply side, low uncertainty refers to stable processes, while high uncertainty refers to processes which are rapidly chang- ing or highly volatile. On the demand side, low uncertainty would relate to functional products in a mature phase of the production life cycle, while high uncertainty relates to innovative products. Once the chain has been catagorised, the most appropriate tools for improvement can be selected.

The traditional supply chain arrangement in Figure 2. However, with supply chain management, prices are developed and agreed, subject to an agreed maximum price with overheads and profit ring fenced.

All parties collaborate to drive down costs and enhance value with, for example the use of an incentive Demand uncertainty Low High 1 2 Low Supply uncertainty 3 4 High Figure 2. The supply chain 47 scheme. With cost determined and profit ring fenced, waste can now be attacked to bring down price and add value and there is an emphasis on continued improvement.

Figure 2. The philosophy of integrated supply chain management is based upon defining and delivering client value through established sup- plier links that are constantly reviewing their operation in order to Define client value Mobilise and Establish develop supplier people relationships Compete through superior underlying value Develop Integrate continuous project improvement activities Manage costs collaboratively Figure 2.

There are now growing pressures to introduce these production philosophies into construction and it is quantity surveyors with their traditional skills of cost advise and project management who can be at the forefront of this new approach.

For example, the philosophy of Lean Thinking, which is based on the concept of the elimination of waste from the production cycle, is of particular interest in the drive to deliver better value. In order to utilize lean thinking philosophy, the first hurdle that must be crossed is the idea that construction is a manufacturing industry which can only operate efficiently by means of a managed and in- tegrated supply chain.

At present the majority of clients are re- quired to procure the design of a new building separately from the construction. However, as the subsequent delivery often involves a process where sometimes as much as 90 per cent of the total cost of the completed building is delivered by the supply chain members there would appear to be close comparisons with, say, the produc- tion of a motor car or an airplane.

The basics of supply chain management can be described as: Determine which are the strategic suppliers and concentrate on these key players as the partners who will maximise added value 2. Work with these key players to improve their contribution to added value 3. Timing is crucial as first tier partners must be able to proceed confident that all other mat- ters regarding the interface of the mechanical and engineering in- stallation with the rest of the project have been resolved and that this element can proceed independently.

Although at least one food retail organisation using supply chain management for the con- struction of its stores, still places the emphasis on the tier partners to keep themselves up to date with progress on the other tiers, as any other approach would be incompatible with rapid timescales that are demanded. The supply chain 49 Despite the fact that on the face of it certain aspects of the con- struction process appear to be prime candidates for this approach, the biggest obstacles to be overcome by the construc- tion industry in adopting manufacturing industry style supply chain management are: Unlike in manufacturing, the planning, design and procure- ment of a building is at present separated from its construction or production 2.

The insistence that unlike an airplane or motorcar, every build- ing is bespoke, a prototype, and therefore is unsuited to this type of model or for that matter any other generic production sector management technique. This factor manifests itself by: Can there be any other manufacturing process, apart from shipbuild- ing that does this? Reluctance by the design team to accept early input from sup- pliers and subcontractors and unease with the blurring of tra- ditional roles and responsibilities.

There is little doubt that the first and third hurdles are the result of the historical baggage outlined in Chapter 1 and that, given time, they can be overcome. However, the second hurdle does seem to have some validity, despite statements from the proponents of pro- duction techniques, buildings are not unique and that commonality even between apparently differing building types is as high as 70 per cent Ministry of Defence, Building Down Barriers.

Interestingly though, one of the main elements of supply chain management, Just in Time JIT , was reported to have started in the Japanese shipbuilding industry in the mids, the very in- dustry that opponents of JIT in construction quote as an example where, like construction, supply chain management techniques are inappropriate.

Therefore, the point at which any discussion of the suitability of the application of supply chain management tech- niques to building has to start with the acceptance that construc- tion is a manufacturing process, which can only operate efficiently by means of a managed and integrated supply chain.

Until comparatively recently, international competition, which in manufacturing is a major influencing factor, was relatively sparse in domestic construction of major industrialised countries. Adding value and minimising waste One of the best researched industries is car manufacturing.

Lean car production is characterised as using less of everything com- pared with mass production; half of the human effort, half of the manufacturing space, half of the engineering hours to develop a new product in half the time.

The competitive benefits created by means of the new approach seem to be remarkably sustainable, however, with the exception of quality methodologies, this new phi- losophy is little known in construction.

The ideas of the new pro- duction philosophy first originated in Japan in the s. The most prominent application, as pioneered by Taiichi Ohno — , was the Toyota production system and central to the system was the single-minded determination to eliminate waste through, amongst other techniques, co-operation with suppliers. Ohno was credited with the identification of waste, defined as activities that create no value, as follows: In , Womack and Jones added an eighth: How many of the items highlighted above can be identified in a typical construction project — Four?

Simultaneously, under the guidance of American consultants, quality issues became another focus for Japanese industry. By the be- ginning of the s the new production philosophy, which is known by several different names including world-class manufacturing, the new production system and lean production was in widespread use.

The supply chain 51 construction: The core of the new pro- duction philosophy is in the observation that there are two kinds of phenomena in all new production systems: Conversions versus flows The conventional approach to a construction project based on con- versions is illustrated in Figure 2. The conversion approach to construction revolves around the principle that buildings are conceived as sets of operations, which are controlled operation by operation, for least cost.

However straightforward the conversion appears, it masks particularly in the construction process, inherent waste due to: Rework due to design or construction errors 2.

Non-value-adding services in the material and work flows, such as waiting and handling and double handling 3. Inspecting, duplicating activities and accidents. The primary focus therefore in the design of new built assets is on minimising value loss, whereas in construction it is on minimising waste.

The lean construction tool box The following approaches are available to achieve lean construction: Just-in-time production 2. Value management 4. Concurrent engineering. Just-in-time production This is the starting point for Ohno and the Toyota revolution. This so-called pull type production process is based on the principle that good communications with suppliers ensures than production is initiated by actual demand, rather than by plans based on forecasts and contrasts to the push technology where large volumes of mate- rials and components are produced, transported and stored ahead of demand and requirements.

For example, delays on site can often be the result of the un- availability of materials. A quantity surveyor has prepared a schedule of the door and window requirements for a new hospital, which has been designed by a firm of consultant architects, but without reference to material and component availability.

The supply chain 53 response paths to this order are illustrated in Figure 2. Units manufactured warehouse and no more and delivered within days. Two weeks delay. Knock No delay to down stream on effect for other supply chain operations 1 Batch production refers to the practice of producing large volumes of one type of unit, as the cheapest method of production. Volumes based on forecasts not demand. Production becomes more responsive and focused, based on small lot production and reduced set up times.

This example illustrates the po- tential problems with just one component of a building project and how traditionally many of the components commonly used in construction have large elements of waste built into their produc- tion. However, this sort of scenario can be encountered many times during the construction of a project. Every time this waste is removed from the supply chain, value is added to the process leading to lower costs, shorter construction pe- riods and greater profits.

Perhaps some of the statistics of time and material wastage referred to earlier could be improved with the wide-scale adoption of JIT techniques and the realisation by the de- sign team that they have to design and manage a project accordingly. Quality method- ologies have developed in parallel with the evolution of the concept of quality. The focus has changed from inspection, through process control to continuous process improvement.

In the traditional ap- proach to quality, no special effort is made to eliminate defects, er- rors or omissions or to reduce their impact. In numerous studies from different countries the cost of poor quality has been found to be between 10 and 20 per cent of total project costs. Agreements for the procurement of construction services by means of a supply chain should include: There must be a mechanism under the contract which enables the performance of the supply chain to be monitored.

This could be in the form of self-monitoring, subject to periodic checks by the client; open book accounting is normally required for this to work effec- tively. In Chapter 1 the process of benchmarking was described, but what and how to benchmark the supply chain?

The supply chain 55 share in the benefit of the works being completed under the target cost. This approach differs from the establishment of a guaranteed maximum price and this is thought by some practitioners to be at odds with the collaborative team approach. This band is not fixed and will reflect the confidence of the parties in the target value of a particular project.

Similar arrangements can be made for completion targets as illustrated in Figure 2.

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