Chapter 3 The British in India. Chapter 4 Realism and Confidence. Part 2. The Emergence of Pakistan, Chapter 5 Muslims Organize. Pakistan. ➢ wm-greece.info . the history of Pakistan as a state began with independence from British India on. 14 August . English and Urdu medium candidates for SSC and HSSC from private schools Government of Pakistan (), National Curriculum; History of Pakistan.
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Muslims against the Muslim League by Ali Usman Qasmi Pdf Free Download Dr. Muniruddin Chughtai, History of Pakistan in English, Pakistan History books. "A Short History of Pakistan" has been organized primarily for high Pakistan emerged, in , from a British India which was partitioned and achieved. PDF Drive offered in: English. × PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have The history of Pakistan / Iftikhar H. Malik. p. cm.
The campaign to establish an independent Muslim state came to prominence in the s and 30s. It originally consisted of two parts, West Pakistan now Pakistan and East Pakistan now Bangladesh , separated by 1, km of Indian territory. Partition was followed by war with India over Kashmir and the mass migration of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs to resettle within the new borders, an upheaval which led to violence, financial loss and death on a large scale.
Jinnah, who is honoured as the Quaid-i-Azam, or great leader, died in In , Pakistan became a federal republic. It has been under military rule for long periods.
In , martial law was declared and political parties abolished. However, failure to win the war against India and accusations of nepotism and corruption undermined his position. Ayub Khan resigned in and power was taken over by General Yahya Khan, who in December held the first national elections in independent Pakistan.
As a result of the military intervention that ensued, civil war broke out in the eastern region in ; the Indian army intervened in support of the Bengalis; Pakistan forces withdrew and Bangladesh became an independent state. In Pakistan withdrew from the Commonwealth but rejoined in Under a new constitution introduced in , Bhutto became Prime Minister. He undertook agrarian reform and the nationalisation of large sections of industry and the financial sector.
In July the army, under General Zia ul-Haq, intervened in the urban unrest. Zia declared martial law and arrested Bhutto who was convicted, after a controversial trial, of conspiring to murder a political opponent.
Despite international appeals, he was hanged in April Zia promised elections within 90 days, but ruled without them until his death. He assumed the presidency and embarked on a programme of Islamisation. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia , Algeria , Tunisia , Morocco and Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. Bengali leader, Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin succeeded as the governor general of Pakistan.
During a massive political rally in , Prime Minister Ali Khan was assassinated , and Nazimuddin became the second prime minister. The situation was controlled by Nazimuddin who issued a waiver granting the Bengali language equal status, a right codified in the constitution.
In at the instigation of religious parties, anti- Ahmadiyya riots erupted, which led to many Ahmadi deaths. Huseyn Suhrawardy became the prime minister leading a communist - socialist alliance , and Iskander Mirza became the first president of Pakistan.
Suhrawardy's foreign policy was directed towards improving the fractured relations with the Soviet Union and strengthening relations with the United States and China after paying first a state visit to each country.
Peshawar is a city of Pathan tribals who are also Muslims. Alexander the Great and parts of his army stayed in this city for forty days in B.
Balahissar Fort is on both the eastern and western approaches to the city, and it is from near here that one can take a train along the mountain routes of the Khyber Pass. While the city is centuries old, the modern Peshawar is well known for its bazaars and for several colleges and a university. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Because at least 95 percent of the Pakistani population is Muslim, there are two food customs that are followed almost universally.
One is that Muslims do not eat pork therefore beef, chicken, lamb, and fish are the basic foods , and the other is that during the month of Ramadan, fasting is a daily activity. Spices and curry are an essential part of any Pakistani recipe. The most prevalent spices include chili powder, tumeric, garlic, paprika, black and red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cardamom, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, nutmeg, and poppy seeds, among others.
Using yogurt to marinate meats is another typical recipe.
Because of the use of spices and curry for the main dish, the usual side dish is plain rice. Lentils are another common specialty.
The food in the south is more exotic and highly spiced, while that in the north often features plain barbecued meat as the main dish. Usually any meat, fowl, or seafood is curried, and frying is the typical method of cooking. Ghee, which is clarified butter, is another commonly used recipe item and is often used for frying. Wheat and flour products are considered mainstays of the daily diet, and the use of pickles, chutneys, preserves, and sauces along with curried meats, seafood, vegetables, and lentils and are why Pakistani cuisine has such a unique flavor.
Green tea is the typical drink served at all meals. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Fasting is an important part of the Muslim observance of Ramadan, but food does play a role on many other occasions. One such event is the Eid-ul-Azha Feast of Sacrifice in the last month of the Muslim calendar, commemorating the occasion when the prophet Abraham was about to sacrifice his son in response to an order from God.
Muslims who can afford it are required to sacrifice a sheep, goat, camel, or cow symbolizing Abraham's submission to God. Eating the meat is part of the festival celebration activity. The important religious festival Shab-I-Barat involves a special type of pudding known as halwa and unleavened bread known as nan being distributed among the poor.
The halwa and nan dishes are specially decorated with silver or gold leaves and also are sent to relatives and neighbors. Workers on a community sanitation project examine the pipes for a new sewer in Faisalabad. Food also plays a role in the celebration of the end of the Ramadan fasting period. This starts with a special breakfast of sheer kharma a sweet dish , which is vermicelli cooked in milk with dried dates, raisins, almonds, and other nuts.
In addition, crowds hurry to local bazaars to download fruit, meat, and sweets as well as new clothes and jewelry. Sweets are distributed as part of the celebration of the birth of a new baby in a family, and an animal sacrificial offering is also made—one goat for a girl and two for a boy, with the animal meat distributed among the poor or among friends and relatives.
Food also is involved in a ceremony celebrating a child becoming six or seven months old. Sisters and relatives place rice pudding in the infant's mouth using a silver spoon, and a drop of chicken broth is also put in the mouth. After this ceremony the adults then hold an elaborate dinner concluded with a special dessert called kheer. Basic Economy. Pakistan is a poor country and its economic outlook is bleak.
It relies heavily on foreign loans and grants, and debt obligations take nearly 50 percent of the government's expenditures. A large number of Pakistanis, estimated at 35 percent, live below the poverty line. Land Tenure and Property. An estimated The major crops are cotton, wheat, rice, and sugarcane. Commercial Activities.
A large percentage of the commercial activities include the sale of handicraft items such as the carpets for which Pakistan is well known.
Major Industries. Major industries of Pakistan include textiles, cement, fertilizer, steel, sugar, electric goods, and shipbuilding.
Pakistan's major exports include cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items, carpets, sports goods, fruit, and handicrafts. Major imports include industrial equipment, vehicles, iron ore, petroleum, and edible oil. A caravan along the Silk Road. Division of Labor. Forty-eight percent of workers are in the service sector, 27 percent are in industry, and 25 percent are in agriculture. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. There is no caste system in Pakistan.
There are high-income, middle-income and a large number of low-income persons throughout the country.
Locale makes an important difference in the quality of life; a low-income person in an urban area has more problems than one living in a tribal, mountainous area. Symbols of Social Stratification. There have been and continue to be a number of social development shortcomings in Pakistan, but in recognition of them, the government in — initiated the Social Action Program SAP to make social development and social services available to all levels of the Pakistanis.
Reports show that while some had benefited, the rural people who were meant to benefit mostly did not. Some of the program's expenditures were for elementary education, primary health, welfare, and rural water supply and sanitation.
It is believed that many people do not understand the purpose and scope of the SAP and that substantial changes must be made in the program if it is to be successful.
Political Life Government. The government of Pakistan consists of an elected prime minister, a president, and a Parliament that consists of the Senate Upper House and the National Assembly Lower House. There are 57 members of the Senate and members of the National Assembly. The prime minister is the head of government, and the president, who is elected by the legislature, is the head of state.
There are also ministers in charge of government divisions such as education and tourism. These are appointed by the prime minister.
They in turn appoint the governors of the different states within the country. Also appointed by the prime minister are the chief justices of the Supreme Court.
Leadership and Political Officials. Each individual state within the country has a governor, and each city has its own mayor. Additionally, most tribal groups have a head chief. Social Problems and Controls. The greatest social problem in Pakistan is drug use.
There are both governmental and non-government programs Women gathered together at a wedding in Islamabad. Muslim marriages unite not only a couple but also their families. Military Activity. Branches of the military are the army, navy, air force, civil armed forces, and national guard.
The military of Pakistan consists of members from all ethnic groups within the country. Their duties have included participation in United Nations UN peacekeeping and nation-building activities in different areas of the world. Soldiers in the Pakistani Army are regular participants in the long-running dispute, sometimes resulting in violence, with India regarding sovereignty over Kashmir.
Military activity in Pakistan has included four military coups. After those in , , , the government was returned to civilian control via popular election. The most recent coup took place in October , and toward the end of a general was still acting as the head of the government, although he has promised a democratic election for a new prime minister in the near future.
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations There are a number of nongovernmental organizations NGOs within Pakistan, including the Aurat and Behood women's organizations, as well as international Lions and Rotary clubs, to which a large number of men belong.
The World Bank and its various agencies have been active in Pakistan since The Aga Khan Rural Support Program has worked to build up village organizations with separate groups for men and women and then, through their groups, to launch a number of development activities. The Orange Pilot Project, headquartered in Karachi, has been active in urban development, including working to improve one of Karachi's worst slum areas, with the first focus being on sanitation, followed by a range of community development activities.
The majority of Pakistani women are homemakers, and men are generally referred to as the breadwinners. The largest percentage of working women in Pakistan are nurses or teachers. Women are represented in government as ministers in Parliament and ambassadors. Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister and served from to The Relative Status of Women and Men.
The women of Pakistan are regular voters as are the men, and women also are regular attendees at colleges. Islam gives women rights to child custody, to alimony, and to inheritance, and they also have the right to conduct business and enter any profession.
Women are engaged in agriculture production and the services sector. Women judges have been appointed to four high courts as well as several lower courts and a 10 percent quota was established for women to become police officers.
There are growing numbers of violent crimes against or involving women and the government has introduced the concept of women police stations, which have been opened in Rawalpindi, Karachi, and Abbottabad in the North West Frontier. A number of computer training centers have been established for women and the government has opened "women development centers" that specialize in training community development workers in family planning, hygiene, sanitation, adult literacy, community organization, and legal rights.
Marriage, Family and Kinship Marriage. One form of a Muslim marriage involves a nikah , a formal legal document signed by the bride and groom in front of several witnesses; this establishes that the couple is legally married.
There are other Muslim marriage traditions as well. One includes the mayun or lagan which takes place three or four days before the marriage and starts with the bride retiring to a secluded area of her home. On the day before the marriage there is a menhdi ceremony, when the bride's hands and feet are painted with henna.
When the marriage ceremony takes place it is required that at least two witnesses be there, and all the guests offer a short prayer for the success of the marriage. After the ceremony, dried dates are distributed to the guests.
Wedding customs vary somewhat among provinces, but the Muslim marriage is seen as uniting both families as well as the couple. Each tribal group also has certain ceremonies that are an important part of the marriages within that group. Women have inheritance rights in Pakistan, so that inheritance benefits can go to women and children after the death of the husband and father.