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(Download) NCERT Book For Class X: World History (India and the Contemporary World 2). Table of Contents. Section I: Events and Processes I. The Rise of. CBSE Class 10 English Book, Footprints without Feet, 35/-. CBSE Class CBSE History Book Class 10, India & Contemporary World II, /-. Footprints Without Feet - Supplementary Reader in English Textbook for Class India and the Contemporary World - 2 Textbook in History for Class - 10 - for Class - 10 Secondary Language (Dwitya Bhasha) Hindi Course Book -
Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist. In , the weavers raised a revolt against the contractors as the contractors drastically reduced their payments. The viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wolff for this uprising was - a large crowd of weavers reached the house of the contractor and demanded higher wages.
The contractor fled with his family to a neighbouring village but did not get shelter. After 24 hours, he returned back with army and eleven weavers were shot dead.
This shows that the viewpoint of the journalist was based against the weavers and in favour of the contractor. He did not understand the misery of the weavers properly. What do they reveal about liberal ideology? Ans : i Woman is weaker than man and her sphere is the home where she keeps children and does household duties such as cooking washing and cleaning.
She advocated that liberty cannot be divided among the men and women. An Anonymous writer says that i It is injustice to discriminate against women on the basis of gender. Write In BriefP. He believed that nations were the natural units of mankind, and so Italy whiCh was then divided into a number of small states and kingdoms had to be forged into a Single unified republic.
During the s,he strived to put together a coherent programme for such a unitary Italian Republic. He also set up two secret societies, namely young Italy and young Europe. These societies helped in the dissemination Of his ideas. When the revolutionary uprisings of and failed to unite Italy, the responsibility to establish a unified Italy fell upon this Italian state.
Cavour led the movement to unite the separate states of nineteenth-century Italy.
Heengineered a careful diplomatic alliance with France, which helped Sardinia-Piedmont defeat the Austrian forces in , and thereby free the northern part of Italy from the Austrian Habsburgs. The Greeks were supported by the West European countries, while poets and artists hailed Greece as the cradle of European civilisation. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of recognised Greece as an independent nation.
It was convened on 18 May, in the Church of St. Paul, in the city of Frankfurt.
This assembly drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. However, it faced opposition from the aristocracy and military. Also, as it was dominated by the middle classes, it lost its mass support base. In the end, it was forced to disband on 31 May, Liberty is personified as a woman; also, liberal nationalism propounded the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women's active participation in nationalist movements in Europe.
Although women had actively participated in nationalist struggles, they were given little or no political rights; an example being the Frankfurt parliament where women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors' gallery. Ans : The French revolutionaries took many important steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people. Ideas of la patrie the fatherland and le citoyen the citizen popularised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
A new French flag replaced the royal standard. The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens. A central administrative system made uniform laws for the entire nation, and regional dialects were discouraged in favour of French as the national language.
What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed? Ans : Marianne and Germania were respective female allegories for the French and the German nation.
They stood as personifications of ideals like 'liberty' and 'the republic'. The importance of the way in which they were portrayed lay in the fact that the public could identify with their symbolic meaning, and this would instil a sense of national unity in them. Ans : The process of German unification was continued by Prussia after the defeat of the liberal, middle-class Germans at the hands of the aristocrats and the military in Its chief minister Otto von Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
Over seven years, Prussia fought three wars with Austria, Denmark and France. These wars culminated in Prussian victory and German unification. Ans : Napoleon introduced several changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him. He formulated the Civil Code of , also known as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with privileges based on birth. This law established equality before law, and also secured the right to property.
Napoleon shortened administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system, and freed peasants from manorial dues and serfdom. Transport and communications were improved too. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals? Ans : The revolution of the liberals refers to the various national movements pioneered by educated middle classes alongside the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in Europe.
While in countries like France, food shortages and widespread unemployment during led to popular uprisings, in other parts of Europe such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire , men and women of the liberal middle classes came together to voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles. In Germany, for example, various political associations comprising middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in Frankfurt to form an all-German National Assembly.
This Frankfurt parliament drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. Though such liberal movements were ultimately suppressed by conservative forces, the old order could never be restored. The monarchs realised that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.
The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were clearly based on democratic ideals. Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national unification—a nation-state with a written constitution and parliamentary administration. They wanted to rid society of its class-based partialities and birth rights.
Serfdom and bonded labour had to be abolished, and economic equality had to be pursued as a national goal. The right to property was also significant in the liberals' concept of a nation based on political, social and economic freedom.
Ans : Apart from wars and territorial expansion, culture also played a crucial role in the development of nationalism. Romanticism was a European cultural movement aimed at developing national unity by creating a sense of shared heritage and common history. The Romantic artists emphasis on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings gave shape and expression to nationalist sentiments.
The strength of art in promoting nationalism is well exemplified in the role played by European poets and artists in mobilising public opinion to support the Greeks in their struggle to establish their national identity. Folk songs, dances and poetry contributed to popularising the spirit of nationalism and patriotic fervour in Europe. Collecting and recording the different forms of folk culture was important for building a national consciousness.
Being a part of the lives of the common people, folk culture enabled nationalists to carry the message of nationalism to a large and diverse audience.
Ans : The World 'Shrank' in the s can be understood as follows i Europeans discovered the sea route to Asia and so trade activities became increased between Asia and Europe. Ans : Language played a very important role in the creation of national Identity. Grimm brothers, namely Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, born in Hanau, a German ciby, wrote 'Fairy Tales' which became popular among children and adults.
They brought the folktales to the public through their creations in German language which encouraged the feelings of the people to achieve freedom of the press. The Grimm brothers tried to oppose French domination that was a danger to German culture. They did a lot of work for the development of German language and creation of German Nationality in reference to identity.
They also published a 32 volume dictionary of German language which was also a wider effort to oppose French domination. Poems, music, stories. Besides it they help to express and farm national feelings through the creation of shared heritage and common culture.
Collective identity among the French people was created by the French revolutionaries by discouraging local dialects and encouraging French. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
Due to some reasons, Polish came in use for church gathering and preaching and in due course, Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian domination.
Ans : The jute growers lament was that only the traders and moneylenders profited from jute cultivation, not the growers.
Peasants of Bengal cultivated raw jute which was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. They grew raw jute hoping that a better time would come and there would be increase in exports. Thus, only the traders and moneylenders profited from jute cultivation, not the farmers.
Ans : Two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience were i An industrial society based on large production is unsustainable without consumption on a large scale. For this high and permanent incomes through full employment are necessary. To provide full employment, the governments must be well equipped with the power to control the flow of capital, labour and goods. Write In BriefP. Ans : Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century: i Textiles, spices and Chinese pottery were exchanged by China, India and Southeast Asia in return for gold and silver from Europe.
Ans : The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas because the Native American Indians were not immune to the diseases that the settlers and colonists brought with them.
The Europeans were more or less immune to smallpox, but the Native Americans, having been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years, had no defence against it. These germs killed and wiped out whole communities, paving the way for foreign domination.
Weapons and soldiers could be destroyed or captured, but diseases could not be fought against. Ans : a The British government's decision to abolish the Corn Laws resulted in losses for the agricultural sector, but progress in the industrial sector.
Food began to be imported more cheaply into Britain, and thousands of workers involved in cultivation became unemployed. However, consumption increased and the industrial sector grew, with more workers being available in cities than in rural areas. Using this situation to their advantage, colonising nations conquered and subdued Africa by monopolising scarce cattle resources to force Africans into the labour market.
Ans : The impact of technology on food availability was manifold in the late nineteenth century. Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped transport food more cheaply and quickly from production units to even faraway markets. Also, refrigerated ships helped transport perishable foods such as meat, butter and eggs over long distances.
It established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to preserve global economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.