Essentials of sociology: a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin. -- 8th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (pbk). Essentials of SociologyA Down-to-Earth Approach Eleventh Edition to contents v Down-to-Earth Sociology Gossip and Ridicule to Enforce. Title: Essentials of sociology: a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin,. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville. Description: Thirteenth.
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Study Guide Plus for Henslin Essentials of Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach Sixth Edition prepared by Katherine R. Rowell Sinclair Community College. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, Tenth Edition, by James M. Henslin. Published by Allyn & Bacon. . essential to the sociological perspective, for this. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, Tenth Edition, by James M. Henslin. . To develop a sociological imagination, it is essential to understand how culture.
In your answer, consider how a particular method may or may not be suitable for the topic under consideration. Observe three classes in which you are enrolled. How would you use symbolic interactionism to explain what happens or does not happen immediately before, during, and immediately after each class?
How would you use functional theory? How would you use conflict theory? Think back to the last time you participate in a survey by phone, Web, or mail Did you really want to participate in the survey?
Why or why not? What problems did you notice with the survey? Do you think most people are compelled to give socially acceptable answers in the survey? Finally, discuss the extent to which you think surveys are a good way to do research. Culture is both material buildings, clothing, tools and nonmaterial ways of thinking and patterns of behavior.
Real culture refers to its actual behavior. People are naturally ethnocentric, using their own culture to judge others; cultural relativism is the attempt to understand other cultures in their own terms.
Universally, the symbols of culture are language, gestures, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, and mores.
Language is essential for culture because it allows us to move beyond the present, sharing with others our experiences and our future plans. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language not only allows us to express our thinking and perceptions but actually shapes them. All groups have values, standards by which they define what is desirable and undesirable, and norms, rules about appropriate behavior.
Socially imposed sanctions maximize conformity to social norms. A counterculture is a subculture that subscribes to values that set its members in opposition to the dominant culture. Value clusters are interrelated individual values that together form a larger whole; sometimes individual values contradict one another.
These contradictions reflect areas of social tension and potential points for social change. Values that are emerging as core values today within United States culture include leisure, physical fitness, self-fulfillment, and concern over the environment.
Today, the technology in travel and communication makes cultural diffusion around the globe occur more rapidly than in the past, resulting in some degree of cultural leveling—a process by which cultures become similar to one another. Define culture, discuss its effects, and differentiate between its material and nonmaterial components.
Know what is meant by culture shock, provide examples of situations that may result in culture shock, and explain how culture shock forces people to challenge their own cultural assumptions. Define ethnocentrism and cultural relativism, offer examples of both concepts, and list the positive and negative consequences of each. Define—and differentiate between—gestures and language. Explain why language is the basis of culture, including why it is critical to human life and essential for cultural development.
Understand the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and provide examples of how language not only reflects and expresses thinking, perceptions, and experiences, but also shapes and influences them. Define values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; provide examples of each; and discuss their sociological significance.
Compare, contrast, and offer examples of dominant cultures, subcultures, and countercultures. List the core values in American society as identified by Robin Williams and supplemented by James Henslin. Explain what is meant by value clusters and value contradictions, and offer examples of some value clusters and value contradictions in American society. Understand how value contradictions can affect social change.
Define the five emerging values. Define and discuss cultural lag, cultural diffusion, and cultural leveling. What Is Culture? Culture is defined as the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next. Material culture includes things such as jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, machines, clothing, and hairstyles.
Culture provides a taken-for-granted orientation to life. We assume that our own culture is normal or natural, but, in fact, it is not natural. Culture is learned. It penetrates our lives so deeply that it is taken for granted and provides the lens through which we evaluate things. It provides implicit instructions that tell us what we ought to do and a moral imperative that defines what we think is right and wrong. Coming into contact with a radically different culture produces culture shock, challenging our basic assumptions about life.
A consequence of internalizing culture is ethnocentrism, using our own culture and assuming it to be good, right, and superior to judge other cultures. Ethnocentrism is functional when it creates in-group solidarity but can be dysfunctional if it leads to harmful discrimination. This view attempts to refocus the lens to help us appreciate other cultures.
Components of Symbolic Culture A. Sociologists sometimes refer to nonmaterial culture as symbolic culture because the central components are the symbols. A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and that people use to communicate. Symbols include language, gestures, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, and mores.
Gestures are used by people in every culture, although the gestures and the meanings differ. Confusion or offense can result because of misunderstandings over the meaning of a gesture or misuse of a gesture. Gestures, which vary remarkably around the world, can create strong emotions. Language consists of a system of symbols that can be put together in an infinite number of ways to communicate abstract thought.
Each word is a symbol, a sound to which a culture attaches a particular meaning. Language is important because it is the primary means of communication between people. It allows human experiences to be cumulative. Each generation builds on the body of significant experiences that is passed on to it by the previous generation, thus freeing people to move beyond immediate experiences.
It extends time back into the past, enabling us to share our past experiences, and forward into the future, allowing us to share our future plans. It expands connections beyond our immediate, face-to-face groups. It allows shared perspectives or understandings and complex, goal- directed behavior. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that our thinking and perception not only are expressed by language but actually are shaped by language because we are taught not only words but also a particular way of thinking and perceiving.
Rather than objects and events forcing themselves into our consciousness, our very language determines our consciousness.
Values, norms, and sanctions are also components of culture. Values are the standards by which people define good and bad, beautiful and ugly. Every group develops both values and expectations regarding the right way to reflect them.
Sanctions are the positive or negative reactions to the way in which people follow norms. Positive sanctions a money rewards, a prize, a smile, or even a handshake are expressions of approval. Negative sanctions a fine, a frown, or harsh words denote disapproval for breaking a norm. Norms can become rigorous, making people feel stifled. Moral holidays, such as Mardi Gras, are specific times when people are allowed to break the norms.
Folkways and mores are different types of norms. Folkways are norms that are not strictly enforced, such as passing on the left side of the sidewalk. They may result in a person getting a dirty look.
Mores are norms that are believed to be essential to core values and to which we insist on conformity. A male walking down the street with the upper half of his body uncovered may be violating a folkway; a female doing the same thing may be violating accepted mores. Taboos are norms that are so strongly ingrained that even the thought of them is greeted with revulsion. Many Cultural Worlds A. Subcultures are groups whose values and related behaviors are so distinct that they set their members off from the dominant culture.
Each subculture is a world within the larger world of the dominant culture. Each has a distinctive way of looking at life but remains compatible with the dominant culture. Ethnic groups often form subcultures with their own language, distinctive food, religious practices, and other customs.
Occupational groups also form subcultures. Countercultures are groups whose values set their members in opposition to the dominant culture. Countercultures are usually associated with negative behavior.
For example, heavy metal fans who glorify Satanism, hatred, cruelty, rebellion, sexism, violence, and death are an example of a counterculture for many people. Often feeling threatened by a counterculture, members of the broader culture may move against the counterculture to affirm their own values. Values in U. Society A. Identifying core values in United States society is difficult, owing to the many different religious, racial, ethnic, and special interest groups that are found in this pluralistic society.
Sociologist Robin Williams identified achievement and success especially doing better than others , individualism success due to individual effort , activity and work, efficiency and practicality, science and technology using science to control nature , progress, material comfort, humanitarianism helpfulness, personal kindness, philanthropy , freedom, democracy, equality especially of opportunity , and racism and group superiority.
Values are not independent units. Value clusters are made up of related core values that come together to form a larger whole. Some values conflict with each other. There cannot be full expressions of democracy, equality, racism, and sexism at the same time. These are value contractions, and as society changes, some values are challenged and undergo modification. As society changes over time, new core values emerge that reflect changed social conditions.
Examples of emergent values in the United States today are leisure. Core values do not change without meeting strong resistance. Values and their supporting beliefs may blind people to other social circumstances. The emphasis on individualism is so high that many people in the United States believe that everyone is free to pursue the goal of success, thereby blinding them to the dire consequence of family poverty, lack of education, and dead-end jobs.
Ideal culture refers to the ideal values and norms of a people. What people actually do usually falls short of this ideal, and sociologists refer to the norms and values that people actually follow as real culture. Technology in the Global Village A. Central to material culture is its technology.
In its simplest sense, technology refers to tools; in its broadest sense, it includes the skills or procedures to make and use those tools. New technologies refers to the emerging technologies that have a major impact on human life during a particular era.
William Ogburn first used the term cultural lag to refer to situations in which not all parts of a culture change at the same pace. When some part of culture changes, other parts lag behind. Sometimes nonmaterial culture never catches up to the changes.
We hold on to some outdated form that was once needed but now has been bypassed by new technology. For most of human history, cultures had little contact with one another. However, there was always some contact with other groups, resulting in groups learning from one another. Social scientists refer to this transmission of cultural characteristics as cultural diffusion. Material culture is more likely than the nonmaterial culture to change because of cultural diffusion.
Cultural diffusion occurs more rapidly today, given the changes in travel and communications. The world is being united by travel and communication to such an extent that there is almost no other side of the world. One consequence of cultural diffusion is cultural leveling, the process in which cultures become similar to one another.
Japan, for example, is no longer a purely Eastern culture, having adopted not only Western economic production, but also Western forms of dress, music, and so on. Robert Edgerton: This sociologist has studied what happens in urban areas when immigration rates exceed the speed with which new residents can learn English and the proportion of non-English speakers increases.
Ogburn coined the term cultural lag. These anthropologists argued that language not only reflects thoughts and perceptions, but actually shapes the way a people perceive the world. Shively researched the reasons why both Anglo and Native American moviegoers identify more with the cowboys than with the Indians. Sumner developed the concept of ethnocentrism. He identified twelve core U. Culture includes: Learned and shared ways of believing and of doing penetrate our being at an early age.
This is the concept of: The disorientation people experience when they come into contact with a radically different culture and when no longer able to depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life is known as: The sociological theory that language creates a particular way of thinking and perceiving is: Every group develops expectations concerning the right way to reflect its values.
Norms that are not strictly enforced are called: In American culture, if a person intentionally kills another person, the behavior violates: In American culture, eating human flesh is a violation of a: In general, physicians in the United States society are: The Ku Klux Klan is a: A pluralistic society: Value contradictions occur when: Which of the following is not one of the underlying core values of U.
Success b. Community c. Progress d. Freedom Which of the following is not of the three core values added by your textbook author, James Henslin? Education b. Religiosity c. Romantic love d. Happiness Which of the following is not one of the five emerging values in the United States?
Leisure b. Security c. Physical fitness d. Youthfulness The valuing of youth and the disparagement of old age seems to be more urgent because of: Ideal culture is: Sociologists call the norms and values that people actually follow: In our society, the custom is for the school year to be nine months long, with students having a three-month summer break.
Today, this pattern would be an example of: The worldwide emergence of the computer as a source of communication is an example of: Nonmaterial culture includes beliefs, values, gestures, and machines. Ethnocentrism has positive and negative consequences. Everyone in the world is influenced by culture. Trying to understand a culture on its own terms is cultural relativism. No one can be entirely successful at practicing cultural relativism.
Gestures are ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with others. Language allows human experience to be cumulative. Mores are essential to our core values.
Subcultures remain compatible with the dominant culture, while countercultures are in opposition to the dominant culture. A pluralistic society is made up of many different groups. Racism and group superiority are core values in U. Core values may contradict one another. An emerging core value in the United States is youthfulness. Ideal values can blind people to real culture. Ogburn referred to the condition of uneven cultural change as cultural lag.
Globalization of capitalism is producing cultural leveling. Cultural leveling inevitably increases cultural distinctiveness. Henslin 32—33 a. Edgerton 35 b. Sapir-Whorf 41 c. Williams 46 d. Ogburn 50 e. Nonmaterial culture. Ethnocentrism 33 b. Ideal culture 49—50 c. Culture lag 50 technological change 5. Counterculture 43 d. Explain cultural relativism, and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of practicing it.
As the author points out, the United States is a pluralistic society, made up of many different groups. Discuss some of the things that are gained by living in such a society, as well as some of the problems that are created. Consider the degree to which the real culture of the United States falls short of the ideal culture. Provide concrete examples to support your essay. Evaluate what is gained and lost as technology advances in society.
Discuss whether cultural leveling is a positive or negative process. Over a period of two or three days, observe various gestures that people use to communicate. List the various gestures.
Are the various gestures confusing to people as they try to communicate with one another? Are there easily shared meanings of the various gestures? Further, think about yourself, your parent s , and your grandparent s. Do different generations view values and the priority of certain values differently? Or are certain values universal across generations in the United States. Provide illustrations from your own family.
As was noted in the text, various new technologies are emerging, and they have a significant impact on our culture and our lives. Choose two new technologies that you currently use and explore the positive and negative effects these technologies have on society. For each technology, list three positive effects and three negative effects. Explain your answer. Observations of isolated and institutionalized children help to answer this question. These studies have concluded that language and intimate interaction are essential to the development of human characteristics.
Cooley and Mead demonstrated that the self is created through our interactions with others. Piaget identified four stages in the development of our ability to reason: Freud defined the personality in terms of the id, ego, and superego. Personality developed as the inborn desires id clashed with social constraints superego. Socialization into emotions is one way societies produce conformity; we learn not only how to express our emotions, but also what emotions to feel.
Intense resocialization takes place in total institutions. Most resocialization is voluntary, but some is involuntary. At each stage, the individual must adjust to a new set of social expectations. Life course patterns vary by social location, such as history, gender, race-ethnicity, and social class. Explain the statement: Discuss how studies of feral, isolated, and institutionalized children prove that social contact and interaction is essential for healthy human development.
Talk about how socialization is critical not only to the development of the mind, but also to the development of emotions, affecting not only how people express their emotions, but also what particular emotions they may feel.
Know what is meant by gender socialization and how the family, media, and other agents of socialization teach children, from the time of their birth, to act masculine or feminine on the basis of their gender. Define the term resocialization and provide examples of situations that may necessitate resocialization. Discuss how different settings, including total institutions, may go about the task of resocializing individuals. Understand why socialization is a lifelong process, and summarize the needs, expectations, and responsibilities that typically accompany different stages of life.
Discuss why human beings are not prisoners of socialization while providing examples of how people can—and do—exercise a considerable degree of freedom over which agents of socialization to follow and which cultural messages to accept—or not accept—from those agents of socialization.
What Is Human Nature? Examples like Isabelle show how humans would be if they were isolated from society at an early age. Isabelle, raised in isolation, appeared severely retarded. Without companionship, she had been unable to develop into an intelligent human.
Subsequent interaction with others at an early age allowed her to reach normal intellectual levels. Studies of institutionalized children show that characteristics we think of as human traits intelligence, cooperative behavior, and friendliness result from early close relations with other humans. When infants in orphanages received little adult interaction, they appeared mentally retarded.
When some were placed in the care of adult women—even though the women were mentally retarded—one-on-one relationships developed, and the infants gained intelligence. As adults, these individuals had, on the average, achieved a high school education, were married, and were self-supporting. A control group of infants remained in the orphanage. A follow-up investigation found that they actually lost intelligence. As adults, this group averaged less than a third grade education.
A few had remained in the institution, while the others had low-level employment. Genie, who was locked in a small room from infancy until she was found at age 13, demonstrates the importance of early interaction. Intensive training was required for her to learn to walk, speak simple sentences, and chew correctly. Yet even so, she remained severely retarded.
Studies of monkeys raised in isolation have reached similar results. The longer and more severe the isolation, the more difficult adjustment becomes. Babies do not naturally develop into human adults; although their bodies grow, human interaction is required for them to acquire the traits considered normal for human beings. Socialization into the Self, Mind, and Emotions A. Charles Horton Cooley — concluded that human development is socially created—that our sense of self develops from interaction with others.
He coined the term looking-glass self to describe this process. The process contains three steps: A favorable reflection in the social mirror leads to a positive self- concept, while a negative reflection leads to a negative self-concept. This development process is an ongoing, lifelong process. George Herbert Mead — agreed with Cooley but added that play is critical to the development of a self.
In play, we learn to take the role of others: Mead concluded that children first take only the role of significant others parents or siblings, for example. As the self develops, children internalize the expectations first of significant others and then eventually of the entire group. The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people in general are the generalized other. According to Mead, the development of the self goes through stages. Children initially can only mimic the gestures and words of others.
Beginning at age 3, children play the roles of specific people, such as a firefighter or the Lone Ranger. In the first years of school, children become involved in organized team games and must learn the role of each member of the team.
Mead distinguished between the I and the me in development of the self. Mead argued that we are not passive participants in this process but actively evaluate the reactions of others and organize them into a unified whole. Mead concluded that not only the self but also the human mind is a social product. The symbols that we use in thinking originate in the language of our society.
Jean Piaget — noted that when young children take intelligence tests, they consistently give wrong answers, while older children are able to give the expected answer. To understand why, he studied the states a child goes through in learning to reason.
The sensorimotor stage ages 0—2: Understanding is limited to direct contact with the environment e. The preoperational stage ages 2—7: Children develop the ability to use symbols, which allows them to experience things without direct contact.
The concrete operational stage ages 7— Reasoning abilities become much more developed. Children now can understand numbers, causation, and speed but have difficulty with abstract concepts such as truth.
Children become capable of abstract thinking and can use rules to solve abstract problems e. Child development specialists suggest that the stages are less distinct and that children develop reasoning skills more gradually than Piaget outlined. The content of what children learn varies from one culture to the next.
Because childhood activities are different, the development of thinking processes will be different. Sigmund Freud — believed that personality consists of three elements. The id inherited drives for self-gratification demands fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, safety, food, and sex. The ego balances between the needs of the id and the demands or society.
The superego the social conscience we have internalized from social groups gives us feelings of guilt or shame when we break rules and feelings of pride and self-satisfaction when we follow them. Most socialization is meant to turn us into conforming members of society.
We do some things and not others a result of socialization. Our social mirror—the result of being socialized into self and emotions—sets up effective controls over our behavior. Socialization into Gender A. Society also channels our behavior through gender socialization. By expecting different behaviors from people because they are male or female, society nudges boys and girls in separate directions from an early age, and this foundation carries over into adulthood.
Parents begin the process. Studies have concluded that in U. In general, parents teach their children gender roles in subtle ways—with the toys they download, the rules they set, and the expectations they have. Peer groups also play an important role in gender socialization. On TV, male characters outnumber females two to one and are more likely to be portrayed in higher-status positions.
There are some notable exceptions to the stereotypes, which are a sign that things are changing. Agents of Socialization A. People and groups that influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior are called agents of socialization. Our socialization experiences in the family are influenced by social class. Research by Melvin Kohn suggests social class differences in child rearing.
Kohn found that over and above social class, the type of job held by the parent is a factor. The more closely supervised the job is, the more likely the parent is to insist on outward conformity.
Some neighborhoods are better for children than others. Research shows that children from poor neighborhoods are more likely to get into trouble with the law, to get pregnant, to drop out of school, and to end up disadvantaged. Religion plays a major role in the socialization of most Americans; 70 percent of Americans belong to a local congregation, and two in every five Americans attend a religious service weekly.
Religion especially influences morality but also ideas about dress, speech, and manners that are appropriate. With more mothers working outside the home today, day care has become a significant agent of socialization. Children from poor households or dysfunctional families appear to benefit from day care. Researchers studied day care centers and found that children in higher-quality day care interact better with children and have fewer behavioral problems.
One national study involved following 1, children from infancy into preschool, with researchers observing them at home and at day care. The results indicated that the more hours per week children spend in day care, the weaker are the bonds between mothers and children and the more negative are their interactions.
In school, children are placed outside the direct control of the family and learn to be part of a large group of people of similar age—a peer group. Peer groups, linked by common interests, are a powerful socializing force. Research by Patricia and Peter Adler demonstrates how peer groups influence behavior. For boys, norms that make them popular are athletic ability, coolness, and toughness.
For girls, the norms are family background, physical appearance, and interest in more mature concerns such as the ability to attract boys. It is almost impossible to go against peer groups; children who do, become labeled as outsiders, nonmembers, or outcasts.
Sports are another powerful socializing agent, teaching skills as well as values.
The workplace is a significant agent of socialization in later life. The part-time jobs we take during high school and college provide opportunities for anticipatory socialization—learning to play an occupational role before actually entering it. There is a tendency for the work we do to become part of our self-image, and we often identify ourselves in terns of our occupation.
Resocialization A. Resocialization refers to the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors to match new situations in life.
Resocialization, in its most common form, occurs each time we learn something that is contrary to our previous experiences, such as going to work in a new job. Most resocialization is mild, but it can be intense. Erving Goffman coined the term total institution to refer to a place—such as boot camps, prisons, concentration camps, convents, some religious cults, and some boarding schools—where people are cut off from the rest of society and are under almost total control of agents of the institution.
A person entering the institution is greeted with a degradation ceremony through which current identity is stripped away and replaced e. Total institutions are quite effective because they isolate people from outside influences and information; supervise their activities; suppress previous roles, statuses, and norms and replace them with new rules and values; and control rewards and punishments.
Socialization Through the Life Course A. As we pass through the different stages, our behaviors and attitudes change in ways that reflect the social expectations of that stage. A general outline of the different stages in the life course would include: Childhood birth to age In earlier times, children were considered miniature adults who served an apprenticeship in which they learned and performed tasks. To keep them in line, they were beaten and subjected to psychological torture.
Adolescence ages 13— Economic changes resulting from the Industrial Revolution brought about material surpluses that allowed millions of teenagers to remain outside the labor force, while at the same time the demand for education increased. Biologically equipped for both work and marriage but denied both, adolescents suffer inner turmoil and develop their own standards of clothing, hairstyles, language, music, and other claims to separate identities.
Young adulthood ages 18— Adult responsibilities are postponed through extended education. At some point during this period, young adults gradually ease into adult responsibilities: Middle years ages 30— For U.
Later adulthood results in a different view of life: Individuals may feel they are not likely to get much farther in life, while health and mortality become concerns. However, for most people, it is the most comfortable period in their entire lives.
Older years age 65 and beyond: People now live longer, and there has been an improvement in general health. At the same time, people in this stage become more concerned with death—that their time is drawing to a close.
Are We Prisoners of Socialization? Sociologists do not think of people as robots who are simply the result of their exposure to socializing agents. Although socialization is powerful and profoundly affects us all, we have a self, and the self is dynamic. Each of us uses his or her own mind to reason and make choices. In this way, each of us is actively involved in the social construction of the self.
Our experiences have an impact on us, but we are not doomed to keep our orientations if we do not like them. Patricia and Peter Adler: These sociologists have documented how peer groups socialize children into gender-appropriate behavior. Cooley studied the development of the self, coining the term the looking- glass self. He also said that all humans show the same facial expressions for these emotions. Goffman studied the process of resocialization with total institutions.
These psychologists studied the behavior of monkeys that were raised in isolation and found that the length of time they were in isolation affected their ability to overcome the effects of isolation. Keniston noted that industrial societies seem to be adding a period of prolonged youth to the life course, in which adult responsibilities are postponed. Kohn has done extensive research on the social class differences in child-rearing patterns.
Mead emphasized the importance of play in the development of self- esteem in men. Piaget studied the development of reasoning skills in children. Skeels and H. These psychologists studied the impact that close social interaction had on the social and intellectual development of institutionalized children.
From the cases of institutionalized children, it is possible to conclude that: The looking-glass self includes: The development of self is an ongoing, lifelong process. We move beyond the looking-glass self as we mature.
The process of the looking-glass self applies to old age. The self is always in process. Taking the role of the other means to: According to George Herbert Mead, which of the following is not one of the three stages in learning to take the role of the generalized other? Imitation b. Transition c. Play d. Game 6. The stage of learning to take the role of the other that generally takes place from three to six years of age is: The imitation stage. Paul Ekman found that everyone in the world experiences six basic: Language b.
Socialization c. Culture d. Religion Usually, the significant others who first teach us our part in the gender division of the world are: People and groups that influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior are: When we examine influences of religion, how many Americans belong to a local congregation?
According to researchers, which children seem to benefit most from day care? Poor children c. Children from dysfunctional families d. According to a study by Adler and Adler, the norms that made boys popular in elementary school included all except: Total b.
Childhood c. Workplace d. Anticipatory Concern about what answers to give during a job interview reflects: Total institutions: The stages that we all go through in life are called the: The sandwich generation experience is most likely to occur in the United States during: Given recent social changes that have taken place within the United States, which of the following groups are particularly challenged by the early middle years stage of the life course?
Generation X b. Women c. Baby boomers d. Men For many aging people, the most comfortable period in their lives is: Increasingly during the last stage of life, people begin to contemplate: What is it that prevents us from being prisoners of socialization? Our culture b. Our education c. Our self d. Our families Each of us is actively involved in the construction of the: Studies of monkeys suggest that animals do not react in similar ways to humans when isolated.
Socialization is the process by which we learn the ways of society, or all particular groups.
George H. Mead introduced the concept of the generalized other to sociology. According to Cooley, the development of the self is essentially completed by adolescence. Mead thought that play is crucial to the development of the self. According to Mead, from the age of about 3 to 6, children can only mimic others. The I is the self as subject.
Piaget used the term operational to mean the ability to reason. The technique of psychoanalysis was founded by Piaget and Freud. Freud assumed that to be male is normal. Our social mirror sets up effective controls over our behavior.
The Adler study found that athletic ability helped to make boys popular. Anticipatory socialization involves learning to play a role before actually taking that role on.
A person who was married but is now divorced and single will experience the process of resocialization. Total institutions rarely encourage degradation ceremonies. Industrialization brought with it a delay in the onset of old age. Charles H. The stage of the life course that poses a special challenge for U.
Cooley 59 a. Mead 60 b. Piaget 61 c. Freud 62 d.
Kohn 68 e. Looking-glass self 59 a. Significant other 60 b. Gender socialization 65 c. Resocialization 71 d. Explain what is necessary in order for us to develop into full human beings. Why do sociologists argue that socialization is a process and not a product?
Having read about how the family, the media, and peers all influence our gender socialization, discuss why gender roles tend to remain unchanged from one generation to the next. As the text points out, the stages of the life course are influenced by the biological clock, but they also reflect broader social factors. Identify the stages of the life course, and indicate how social factors have contributed to the definition of each of these stages. Watch one afternoon and one evening of television.
Some people might say that you ought not to be encouraged to do this! Note the time of the day or evening, what day or night of the week it is, and the type of program soap opera, sit-com, etc.
What are images of men and women on the programs? Think about the agents of socialization that you have experienced in your life. Which one has been the most influential? Explain why. Which agent do you think was more important for your parents? Think about yourself, your family, and the different generations. Categorize yourself and your closest family members as to where you and your relatives are in the life course.
How is socialization affecting all of you? How has it? How will it? Macrosociology investigates the large-scale features of social structure, and microsociology focuses on social interaction. Functional and conflict theorists tend to use a macrosociological approach; symbolic interactionists are more likely to use a macrosociological approach.
Culture, social class, social status, roles, groups, and institutions are the major components of the social structure. Sociologists have identified nine institutions: A tenth—the mass media—is emerging. Sweeping changes have followed each of the four social revolutions; the first is associated with the domestication of animals and plants, the second with the invention of the plow, the third with the invention of the steam engine, and the fourth with the invention of the microchip.
The dramaturgical analysis provided by Erving Goffman analyzes everyday life in terms of the stage; at the core of this analysis is impression management, or our attempts to control the impressions we make with others. The social construction of reality refers to the ways in which we construct our view of the world. Ethnomethodology is the study of the background assumptions people have to help them make sense of their everyday lives. Differentiate between the macrosociological and microsociological approaches to studying social life, and indicate which of the approaches is most likely to be used by functionalists, conflict theorists, and symbolic interactionists.
Understand the concepts of culture, social class, social status, roles, groups, and social institutions. Identify the various types of societies, including hunting and gathering, pastoral and horticultural, agricultural, industrial, postindustrial, and bioeconomic societies. Define stereotypes, and explain their significance.
Talk about the various ways in which different cultures perceive and use personal space, touching, and eye contact. Differentiate between role conflict and role strain, and provide examples of each. Understand how and why ethnomethodologists examine different ways in which people use background assumptions to make sense out of everyday life.
Explain what is meant by the social construction of reality and how it is related to the Thomas theorem. Know why both macrosociology and microsociology are essential to understanding social life.
Levels of Sociological Analysis A. Macrosociology places the focus on large-scale features of social structure. It investigates large-scale social forces and the effects they have on entire societies and the groups within them. It is utilized by functionalist and conflict theorists. Microsociology places the emphasis on social interaction, or what people do when they come together.
Symbolic interaction is an example. While each has a different focus, together these two levels of analysis provide a fuller picture of social life.
The Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure A. Social structure is defined as the patterned relationships between people that persist over time; it is sociologically significant because it guides our behavior. Personal feelings and desires tend to be overridden by social structure. Major components of social structure are culture, social class, social status, roles, groups, social institutions, and societies. It determines what kind of people we will become.
Social class in U. Social status refers to the positions that an individual occupies. Each status provides guidelines for how people are to act and to feel. Status set refers to all the statuses or positions that an individual occupies. Ascribed statuses are positions that an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life. Status symbols are signs that identify a status.
A master status—such as being male or female—cuts across the other statuses that an individual holds. Status inconsistency is a contradiction or mismatch between statuses. Roles are the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status. The individual occupies a status but plays a role.
Roles are an essential component of culture because they lay out what is expected of people, and as individuals perform their roles, those roles mesh to form the society.
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Deviance or Freedom of Self-Expression? What Do You Know? The Shifting U. Biology or Culture? How Tall? Why Major in Sociology? Deviance or Freedom of Self- Expression? Lara Croft, Tomb Raider: Sociology is fascinating because it is about human behavior, and many of us find that it holds the key to understanding social life.
If you like to watch people and try to figure out why they do what they do, you will like sociology. Sociology pries open the doors of society so you can see what goes on behind them.
Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach stresses how profoundly our society and the groups to which we belong influence us. Social class, for example, sets us on a particular path in life. For some, the path leads to more education, more interesting jobs, higher income, and better health, but for others it leads to dropping out of school, dead-end jobs, poverty, and even a higher risk of illness and disease. These paths are so significant that they affect our chances of making it to our first birthday, as well as of getting in trouble with the police.
They even influence our satisfaction in marriage, the number of children we will have—and whether or not we will read this book in the first place. I hope that you will have this experience, too.
From how people become homeless to how they become presidents, from why people commit suicide to why women are discriminated against in every society around the world—all are part of sociology. This breadth, in fact, is what makes sociology so intriguing. We can place the sociological lens on broad features of society, such as social class, gender, and race—ethnicity, and then immediately turn our focus on the smaller, more intimate level.
If we look at two people interacting—whether quarreling or kissing—we see how these broad features of society are being played out in their lives. Nor do we come into this world with preconceived notions of what life should be like. At birth, we have no concepts of race— ethnicity, gender, age, or social class. Yet we all learn such things as we grow up in our society. As we see how their customs affect them, the effects of our own society on us become more visible.
This book, then, can be part of an intellectual adventure, for it can lead you to a new way of looking at your social world—and, in the process, help you to better understand both society and yourself. I wish you the very best in college—and in your career afterward.
It is my sincere desire that Essentials of Sociology: A Down- to-Earth Approach will contribute to that success. James M. I enjoy communicating with students, so feel free to comment on your experiences with this text. You can reach me by e-mail: For many of us, this was an eye-opening experience. This text is designed to open those windows onto social life for students, so they can see clearly how group membership has vitally influenced their lives.
To study sociology is to embark on a fascinating process of discovery. We can compare society to a huge jigsaw puzzle. Only gradually do we see how the intricate pieces fit together. As we begin to see these interconnections, our perspective changes as we shift our eyes from the many small, disjointed pieces to the whole that is being formed.
It is our privilege to share with students this process of awareness and discovery called the sociological perspective. As instructors of sociology, we have set ambitious goals for ourselves: Although formidable, these goals are attainable, and this book can help you reach them.
Based on many years of frontline classroom experience, its subtitle, A Down-to-Earth Approach, was not chosen lightly. My goal is to share the fascination of sociology with students and thereby make your teaching more rewarding. It is a pleasure to watch them gain insight into how their social experiences give shape to even their innermost desires.
From learning how the international elite carve up global markets to studying the intimacy of friendship and marriage, students can see how sociology is the key to explaining contemporary life—and their own place in it.
In short, this text is designed to make your teaching easier. There simply is no justification for students to have to wade through cumbersome approaches to sociology. I am firmly convinced that the introduction to sociology should be enjoyable and that the introductory textbook can be an essential tool in sharing the discovery of sociology with students.
The Organization of This Text This text is laid out in five parts. Part I focuses on the sociological perspective, which is introduced in the first chapter. We then look at how culture influences us Chapter 2 , examine socialization Chapter 3 , and compare macrosociology and microsociology Chapter 4. We first examine the different types of groups that have such profound influences on us and then look at the fascinating area of group dynamics Chapter 5.
On the negative side, ethnocentrism can lead to discrimination against people whose ways differ from ours. The many ways in which culture affects our lives fascinate sociologists.
This will serve as a basis from which you can start to analyze your own assumptions of reality.
I should give you a warning at this point: You might develop a changed perspec- tive on social life and your role in it. If so, life will never look the same. In Sum: Arabs wear gowns on the street and feel that it is natural to do so. Americans do the same with jeans. It is just as arbitrary to stand in line as to push and shove. Culture penetrates deeply into our thinking, becoming a taken-for-granted lens through which we see the world and obtain our perception of reality.
Culture provides implicit instructions that tell us what we ought to do and how we ought to think. It establishes a fundamental basis for our decision making. I, for example, believed deeply that it was wrong to push and shove to get ahead of others. Coming into contact with a radically different culture challenges our basic assumptions about life. I experienced culture shock when I discovered that my deeply ingrained cultural ideas about hygiene and the use of personal space no longer applied.
Although the particulars of culture differ from one group of people to another, culture itself is universal. That is, all people have culture, for a society cannot exist without developing shared, learned ways of dealing with the challenges of life. All people are ethnocentric, which has both positive and negative consequences. For an example of how culture shapes our ideas and behavior, consider how some people dance with the dead. You can read about this in the Cultural Diversity around the World box on the next page.
Practicing Cultural Relativism To counter our tendency to use our own culture as the standard by which we judge other cultures, we can practice cultural relativism; that is, we can try to understand a culture on its own terms.
This means looking at how the elements of a culture fit together, without judging those elements as inferior or superior to our own way of life. With our own culture embedded so deeply within us, practic- ing cultural relativism is difficult to do. It is likely that the Malagasy custom of dancing with the dead seemed both strange and wrong to you. If we practice cultural relativism, however, we will view both dancing with the dead and bullfighting from the perspec- tive of the cultures in which they take place.
It will be their history, their folklore, their ideas of bravery, sex roles, and mortality that we will use to understand their behavior.
You may still regard dancing with the dead as strange and bull- fighting as wrong, of course, particularly if your culture, which is deeply ingrained in you, has no history of dancing with the dead or of bullfighting.
We all possess culturally specific ideas about how to show respect to the dead. We also possess culturally specific ideas cultural relativism not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms Many Americans perceive bullfighting as a cruel activity that should be illegal everywhere.
To most Spaniards, bullfighting is a sport that pits matador and bull in a unifying image of power, courage, and glory. Cultural relativism requires that we suspend our own perspectives in order to grasp the perspectives of others, something easier described than attained. Explore on MySocLab Activity: The Asian Population in the United States: In Part III, we turn our focus on social inequality, examining how it pervades society and its impact on our own lives.
The first Chapter 7 , with its global focus, presents an overview of the principles of stratification. The second Chapter 8 , with its emphasis on social class, focuses on stratification in U. After establishing this broader context of social stratification, we examine inequalities of race and ethnicity Chapter 9 and then those of gender and age Chapter Part IV helps students become more aware of how social institutions encompass their lives.
We first look at politics and the economy, our overarching social institutions Chapter After examining the family Chapter 12 , we then turn our focus on education and religion Chapter One of the emphases in this part of the book is how our social institutions are changing and how their changes, in turn, influence our orientations and decisions.
With its focus on broad social change, Part V provides an appropriate conclusion for the book. Here we examine why our world is changing so rapidly, as well as catch a glimpse of what is yet to come. We first analyze trends in population and urbanization, those sweeping forces that affect our lives so significantly but that ordinarily remain below our level of awareness Chapter We conclude the book with an analysis of technology, social movements, and the environment Chapter 15 , which takes us to the cutting edge of the vital changes that engulf us all.
Themes and Features Six central themes run throughout this text: For each of these themes, except globalization, which is incorporated in several of the others, I have written a series of boxes. These boxed features are one of my favorite components of the book. They are especially useful for introducing the controversial topics that make sociology such a lively activity. Down-to-Earth Sociology As many years of teaching have taught me, all too often textbooks are written to appeal to the adopters of texts rather than to the students who must learn from them.
The term is also featured in my introductory reader, Down-to- Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings, to appear in its 15th edition New York: The Free Press, This first theme is highlighted by a series of boxed features that explore sociological processes that underlie everyday life.
The topics we review in these Down-to-Earth Sociology boxes are highly diverse. Here are some of them. Du Bois, an early sociologist, in studying U. To reinforce this theme, I avoid unnecessary jargon and use concise explanations and clear and simple but not reductive language. Globalization In the second theme, globalization, we explore the impact of global issues on our lives and on the lives of people around the world.
All of us are feeling the effects of an increasingly powerful and encompassing global economy, one that intertwines the fates of nations. The globalization of capitalism influences the kinds of skills and knowledge we need, the types of work available to us—and whether work is available at all. Globalization also underlies the costs of the goods and services we consume and whether our country is at war or peace—or, as we seem to be in our permanent war economy, in some uncharted middle ground between the two.
In addition to the strong emphasis on global issues that runs throughout this text, I have written a separate chapter on global stratification Chapter 7.
I also feature global issues in the chapters on social institutions and the final chapters on social change: What occurs in Russia, Germany, and China, as well as in much smaller nations such as Syria and Iraq, has far- reaching consequences on our own lives. Consequently, in addition to the global focus that runs throughout the text, the next theme, cultural diversity, also has a strong global emphasis. Cultural Diversity around the World and in the United States The third theme, cultural diversity, has two primary emphases.
The first is cultural diversity around the world. At times, when we learn about other cultures, we gain an appreciation for the life of other peoples. To highlight this first subtheme, I have written a series of boxes called Cultural Diversity around the World. The stimulating contexts of these contrasts can help students develop their sociological imagination.
They encourage students to see connections among key sociological concepts such as culture, socialization, norms, race—ethnicity, gender, and social class.
Critical Thinking In our fourth theme, critical thinking, we focus on controversial social issues, inviting students to examine various sides of those issues. Like the boxed features, these sections can enliven your classroom with a vibrant exchange of ideas. Because of their controversial nature, these sections stimulate both critical thinking and lively class discussions.
They also provide provocative topics for in- class debates and small discussion groups, effective ways to enliven a class and present sociological ideas. Sociology and the New Technology The fifth theme, sociology and the new technology, explores an aspect of social life that has come to be central in our lives.
We welcome our many new technological tools, for they help us to be more efficient at performing our daily tasks, from making a living to communicating with others—whether those people are nearby or on the other side of the globe. The significance of our new technology, however, extends far beyond the tools and the ease and efficiency they bring to our lives.
The new technology is better envisioned as a social revolution that will leave few aspects of our lives untouched. Its effects are so profound that it even changes the ways we view life. This theme is introduced in Chapter 2, where technology is defined and presented as an essential aspect of culture.
The impact of technology is then discussed throughout the text. Examples include how technology is related to cultural change Chapter 2 , fantasy life Chapter 4 , the control of workers Chapter 5 , and the maintenance of global stratification Chapter 7. To highlight this theme, I have written a series of boxes titled Sociology and the New Technology. In these boxes, we explore how technology affects our lives as it changes society.
We consider how they penetrate our consciousness to such a degree that they even influence how we perceive our own bodies. As your students consider this theme, they may begin to grasp how the mass media shape their attitudes. If so, they will come to view the mass media in a different light, which should further stimulate their sociological imagination.
To make this theme more prominent for students, I have written a series of boxed features called Mass Media in Social Life. As is discussed in the next section, some of the most interesting—and even fascinating—topics are presented in a visual form. Poet in Qatar sentenced to life in prison for writing a poem critical of the royal family Topic: Chinese leaders block Internet access to Facebook and Twitter Topic: The Picosecond laser scanner can read molecules on a human body Topic: Researching the American Dream: A Personal Journey Figure 8.
Living in the Dorm: Contact Theory Down-to-Earth Sociology box: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack: Exploring Cultural Privilege Topic: Predatory lending increased monthly payments for home mortgages, causing many African Americans to lose their homes when the economic crisis hit Topic: Senate Topic: President Obama signed an Executive Order allowing work permits to unauthorized immigrants who meet certain qualifications Chapter 10 Gender and Age Thinking Critically section: Making the Social Explicit: Affirmative Action for Men?
Down-to-Earth Sociology box: Applying Sociology: How to Get a Higher Salary Topic: Women in jobs that give them authority and men in nurturing occupations reaffirm their gender at home Topic: Both males and females who are given a single dose of testosterone seek higher status and show less regard for the feelings of others Topic: Dominance behavior, such as winning a game, produces higher levels of testosterone Topic: Targeted Killings Topic: The communist rulers of China, sensitive to online communications, change course if they sense strong sentiment in some direction Topic: Health Benefits of Marriage: Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective Topic: The divorce rate of couples who cohabit before marriage is about the same as those who did not cohabit.