PDF definition: 1. abbreviation for portable document format: a system for storing and sending documents between computers that does not allow the contents to. The Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools Vocabulary Multi-word verbs are not included in the list if they have a literal meaning and are. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Wierzbicka, Anna. English: meaning and culture/Anna Wierzbicka. p. cm. Includes bibliographical.
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Semantics is concerned with the study of meaning in language and is related to both philosophy and logic. Semiotics is the study of communication systems in. Download this large English dictionary in PDF for free. This dictionary will help you learn English as your second language. PDF definition: PDF files are computer documents which look exactly like the original documents, | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.
Luckily, though, these three words have very different uses, and the examples below should help you remember them. Your — this is the second person possessive form, indicating something belonging to you. By — this preposition refers to something beside, near or through. Stationary — this word is used to describe something that is motionless not moving. Complement — this is something that goes well with something else. Brake — this spelling refers to the brakes on a car or other vehicle, and in a wider sense to slowing down.
Here are all the possible definitions. The taxi is now here'. In other sentences, the restricted period is made explicit: Someone has broken her doll 'The doll is now broken'. Have you installed any new software in the last week? I Have you taken In other examples, the resultative implication is still there, even though it him to the vet since the trouble started?
Have you seen my car keys recently? ArnE would be more likely to use the Simple Past. If the adverbs recently and just are omitted from these sentences, there is scarcely any change of The resultative meaning needs no support from adverbials. It is sometimes meaning, as they simply make the implicit 'nearness' of the event explicit. There is a comparable resultative use of past participles; a broken doll, a painted ceiling, an injured arm. For example, a broken doll means a doll that has been broken, Again, here is the same point illustrated with the indefinite past use: These examples contrast with past participles of 'state verbs', where the meaning is purely stative: Did Anton Chekhov write any novels?
There are two Perfect forms of the verb ga: The difference in meaning between them is that the first is resultative, indicating In all these examples, the period in question is assumed rather than named: He has gone to America Implies he Is still there; He has been to America it is most likely the lifetime of the person or institution denoted by the implies that he has since returned or at least that he has since left America.
As the notions of completeness and result are clearly connected, we note at this a. We do find occasional examples which contradict the rule about continuation point the completive emphasis of the Present Perfect in some rather oracular utter- up to the present, e. What I have written, I have written. Here the effect of the Perfect is 'What I have written must stay there - It cannot be altered or added to'. First, it is worth noting that the Present Perfect is much less frequent than the Simple Past tense.
The resultatlve use of the Present Perfect in BrE is shown of the Present Perfect are of very different frequency - by far the most in contrast to the Simple Past in: The indefinite past Peter has injured his ankle 'His ankle is still bad'. The Peter injured his ankle ' The second allows us to conclude that the result of the injury has Now let's review the contrasts and points of overlap between these disappeared. As a means of referring to the past, a.
This house was built by Imgo fones. Tobacco was continuation up to the present, present result, and indefinite time. This element of meaning is found replaced by the Simple Past: Why are you limping?
Did you hurt YOllr foot? The contrast of the 'state' Perfect with the Past is evident in: The point of reference may be specified in one of three ways: The same contrast is made with the habitual use in: For generations, Nepal has produced the world's greatest soldiers 'The nation of Nepal still exists'.
I saw him Tuesday.
Implicit definiteness can often be clarified by taking the corresponding indefin- b By a preceding use of a Past or Perfect Tense: Ite statement, and by mentally adding a when clause. Who gave you this tie? Did you have a good journey? Did you hear that noise? When the topic of a sentence is unique e. From the speaker's viewpoint - though not necessarily from since we know that Philadelphia is a definite place, and was founded at a unique the hearer's - the time is definite.
In this connection, it is interesting to contrast the indefinite John has painted A picture of his sister with the definite John painted THIS picture. The Past Tense, Indicating a definite point of reference in the past, is to be expected in temporal clauses introduced by when, while, since, etc.
When followed by the Present Perfect is not frequent, and must be understood in a past-in-the-future or hablt-up-to-the-present sense. Perfect is exactly parallel to the contrast in meaning between the definite the when clause Is classed as an adverbial expression of time-when, just like last article the and the indefinite article a or an.
We say the cat rather than a week, three years ago, etc. There is an idiomatic exception to the rule that the Simple Past Tense indicates whenever, even though no cat has been mentioned, we know simply definite meaning: It is simply a colloquial variant of the Present Perfect with 'state verbs', and can always be replaced by the If a husband says to his wife Did you feed the cat?
There are eqUivalent question and negative forms unless they have more than one cat which cat is meant. Did you ever see such a mess? I never met such an important person These two conditions of previous mention and uniqueness within the before.
It is natural to introduce a new topic it is quite common to hear in North America the Simple Past where in Great Britain indefinitely, then to progress to definite reference using Past Tense, definite the Present Perfect in its recent-indefinite-past sense would be standard: Did YOIl sell your bicycle yet? Similarly, Past follows Perfect: There have been times when I wished you were here. Il'l Although the meanings of the Simple Past and Present Perfect are differ- ent in the ways stated, it is worth noting that either of them can be Where have you been?
I was looking for you everywhere. For ex- A: I've only been to Switzerland once.
How did you like it? Now where did I put my glasses? The difference between these two is merely a slight difference of viewpoint. As the last example shows, after the definite time has been established, In the first sentence, the speaker's attention is fixed on the moment when the Past Tense can be repeatedly used to denote events happening simul- the glasses were lost, in an effort to remember what happened at that taneously or in succession, just as one may continue to refer to the same time; in the second, the speaker focuses on the present result of this person as the woman or she.
A preceding indefinite reference 'licenses' a definite reference. Batman responds when Gotham City is threatened by the vengeful Ifm Adverbials associated with the Past Tenses include a week ago, earlier this year, last Monday, the other day, yesterday morning and similar phrases.
At four o'clock, in the morning, on Tuesday, then, soon, next, after breakfast, In this way a writer of a narrative summary gives a retrospective account etc.
Members of this group, although they refer to a definite time, do not of previous happenings, using the Present Perfect. But when they have past reference they are 'in the past' from the point of view of the stage of the story now reached. As the Past Tense belongs to finite verb constructions only, the Perfect form does duty, in non-finite constructions, for both Past Tense and Perfect Aspect. Thus it can have la Inrather contrast, the following are adverbials associated with the Present Perfect than the Past: Having seen a doctor yesterday shows you, etc.
Such phrases and clauses normally refer to a time period stretching the Perfect form of the present participle co-occurring with yesterday - up to 'now', and so go with the Present Perfect in its state, indefinite past, something not allowable with a finite verb.
The same point can be of the Present Perfect. But tIOW can be used. We have now finished the whole project. Present Perfect or the Past. The primary pOint of reference is the present moment - the moment Today, this month, this year, this century, etc.
But with the Past Tense, virtually interchangeable. If there is a difference of meaning between I there is a secondary point of reference as well: Past evokes a past point of reference 'then', whereas the Present Perfect This morning, tonight, this March, this Christmas, etc. With this morning I afternoon I I. We have already noticed some of the I have been to the dentist this morning at 11 a.
This differences, but it will be useful at this point to summarise usage with distinction, if made, accords with the principle that the Present Perfect regard to adverbials. A rough general rule is that with the Present Perfect, has to involve a period extending up to the present. The most natural In discussing the Past Perfect, it is useful to distinguish between the inference from I saw him this March is that March is over, while I have seen ordinary past point of reference 'then' T and the previous point of time him this March suggests that March is still with us.
Recently and ;ust, as adverbs of the near past, can take either the Present definite Perfect or the Past: I've ;ust seen your boyfriend or I just saw your boyfHend.
Here is Whereas T by its very nature as a point of reference is definite, B is an exceptional use of the Past Tense.
Had they visited Brazil before? Now, as we would expect, is prindpally associated with the Present Tenses: Now my ambition is I has been fulfilled.
With Past Tense, it is a narrative sub- Mr Phipps had sung in that choir for fifty years. Now my ambition was fulfilled. The goalkeeper had injured his leg. I was once an honest man. With the Present Perfect, it ing Present Perfect sentence, because a definite time B 'before then' is is a numerical adverb contrasting with twice, three times, etc.: I have visited mentioned.
It is worth noting that an adverbial of time-when with the Past Perfect Already, still, yet and before occur with the Present Perfect in the sense can refer to either T 'then' or B 'before then' ; '[surprisingly,] as early as now', '[surprisingly,] as late as now', etc.: I've seen him already; 1 still haven't seen him.
With the Past, they must have a When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. The thieves had run away when the police arrived. Past and Past Perfect are interchangeable. These two sentences could well viewpoint of a definite pOint of time already in the past'.
That is, like the Simple Past Tense, the Past Perfect demands an already established past be describing the same sequence of events: This is why it is difficult to begin a conversation with 1 I ate my lunch after my wife had come back from town.
We would hardly need to give separate attention of the Past Perfect if it were merely a question of adding the Perfect Aspect meaning to Past After itself places the wife's arrival before the eating, so the Past Perfect in Tense meaning. What difference there is between these two further In the past equivalent to both the Past and Perfect.
It is like the statements can be represented as follows: It also hints that the situation is liable to change. The second sentence, on the other hand, seems nonsensical because it gives duration to something which cannot have duration: Statement 1 is the more explicit choice.
BrE favours this use of the panied by an adverbial of duration. The sentence? You've been reading that book for ages is allowable, but. However, all features of meanIng associated with the Once again, however, there is virtually a free choice between the two forms Perfect Aspect and the Progressive Aspect considered separately come into in many contexts: Jack has been looking after the business Or several years play in one way or another. There seems to be a tendency to avoid the ordinary Present Perfect with verbs such as sit, lie, wait and stay, which generally refer to temporary states.
The second been sitting here all afternoon is more Idiomatic than I've sat here all afternoon. The of these gives the Perfect Progressive its meaning of 'temporariness', seen same preference is exercised even with very long periods of time: The inscription in these examples: I've been writing a letter to my nephew.
I How have you been getting b. The Perfect Progressive, however, is almost never found with the Passive Voice: Volunteers have been running the organisation could scarcely be turned Into the Passive The verbs here are 'activity verbs' which typically go with the Progressive form of The organisation has been being nm by volunteers.
There is, however, a difference between a temporary and a perman- d. Although as a general rule a since clause requires the Present Perfect Instead of ent time-scale: The usual construction is, however, the Present Perfect Progressive: I have been Lynn and Josh have been living in that house since their marriage. With 'bounded' verbs 'event verbs', including some 'activity verb' or Let us list these elements as follows: This usually implies 'Some of it is left'. This usually implies 'It's all gone'.
They've widened the road 'The job's finished'. There is little to choose between I've taken the dog for a walk and I've been taking the dog for a walk, except that the former II The above description applies to the Present Perfect Progressive referring places emphasis on the present result, the latter on the recent activIty, as to a single unbroken activity or situation. Less commonly, this tense is suggested by these two snatches of dialogue: He's been scoring plenty of goals so far this season.
I I've been going to Where have you been? You've been fighting again 'I can tell that from your black eye'. Examples can also be found of' the second habitual meaning of the Pro- greSSive, that which involves stretching the time-span of each event rather It's been snowing ,Look, the ground is white'.
When- She's been crying again 'Look, her eyes are red'. In these cases, as in general with the Perfect Progressive, it is not necessary for the activity to continue right up to the present moment.
Recentness is sometimes stressed by the adverb just J've just been listening to a programme on Vietnam. The 'recently stopped' component of meaning need not be in conflict with the element of 'non-completlon'. In neither case can the events foretold be adverbial of time-when: I had been speaking to her at 4 o'clock. This can mean a that the thousand years led up to 'then', the point of reference a use correspondIng to the Present Perfect Progressive, as in The Pitt, who later became Britain's youngest Prime Minister, was at this time inscription has been lying there for a thousand years ; or b that there was a Chancellor of the Exchequer.
It combines the of 'is. This is all that needs to be said about this tense of infrequent occurrence. But there is no regular verbal con- This construction is not to be confused with the adjectival idiom be used struction with this meaning in everyday use. I Before they built the hotel. The beauty contest was taking place on the next day. The beauty contest was going to take place on the next day.
To both of these one could add: I When I was young, my be cancelled because of bad weather'. These are therefore not true future- grandfather used to tell me frightful stories of the war. Three points are to be noted about this construction.
Because of its state or habit meaning, it are interpreted 'was I were destined to': I used to be rich ' This strange, nervous individual was later to be defendant in one of the b Used to is not normally accompanied by an adverbial of time-when.
Thus an element of 'indefinite past' is normally present in the meaning of used to. Nevertheless, the combination of used to with an adverbial of time-when, though unusual, is not unacceptable: He used to live here The Expression during the war rears. On the other hand, an adverbial of duration can be employed if it specifies the 86 five ways of expressing future. He used ID go home for several weeks during 88 will, 'II and shall; 89 forecasting use; 90 past in future; 91 future use the summer is permissible, because for several weeks here refers to each of the series of shall.
Used to does not occur with the Perfect Aspect: Often when meaning; 97 does not guarantee fulfilment of the event. The most important of them are: The parcel will arrive tomorrow. The parcel is going to arrive tomorrow. The parcel is arriving tomorrow. The parcel arrives tomorrow. The parcel will be arriving tomorrow. These verb forms all have their subtle nuances of meaning, and cannot be 'I regarded as simply interchangeable.
The task of this chapter is to explain the differences, beginning with the most common construction, that of II will or shall followed by the infinitive. Since will is at least 10 times more frequent than shall, I treat will as speaking people feel that shall is the correct form, and so I will and we will the normal auxiliary for the future, and deal with future shall more briefly are sometimes avoided by more 'grammatically conscious' writers, par- in a separate section.
II The will future is used in a wide range of contexts in which It is appropri- ate to make predictions: Tomorrow's weather will be cold and cloudy. I The next budget will need to be a severe one. I Perhaps I'll an auxiliary of the future.
In fact, these two functions are so closely change my mind after I've spoken to my wife. This chapter, however, will deal with only the main future use of will, leaving its volitional and Will is particularly common in the main clause of conditional sentences: If you press this button, the roof will slide back.
A good reason for putting together the future and modal uses of will lies in the very nature of futUrity. Will is no excep- future: The word which most usefully characterises the future meaning of In twenty years' time, no one will work more than a thirty-hour week.
Thus, I There will be a fire-alarm drill at 3 o'clock this afternoon. Will can refer to either an indefinite or a definite time in the future.
In Sarah imation to a neutral or colourless future, we should not describe it as a will keep her promise, will keep is the future counterpart of the Present Perfect Tense 'future tense' on a par with the Past and Present Tenses. Sarah has kept her promise ; in Next year we'll have a good harvest, '11 have is the counterpart of the Simple Past Last year we had a good harvest. Frequently, however, a sentence with will describing a future event feels incom- after pronoun subjects to the form written '11, which can combine with plete without an adverbial of definite time: These sentences are relatively unacceptable on their own, because of their factual emptiness.
We all feel certain that 'it will rain' at some time In the future, so there I'll see you soon. I You'll have to work quickly. I She'll be at home when is no point In saying It will rain unless an actual time can be forecast. On the other hand It is going to rain is fine you get there. Shall, however, can express this predictive meaning only with a first- c. It can be taken for granted in the rest of this chapter that will, as well as other person pronoun as subject: Find out in I shall have to tell the truth at last.
I We shall explore this topic in the next week's Conquest. Here time is seen in terms of the 'virtual reality' of imaginary narrative next chapter. Will also often denotes a 'virtual' future in referring forward to a later With a second-person or third-person subject, shall has a modal meaning, part of a book or article: The sensory apparatus of bats will be examined later, in Chapter However, the Simple Present can also be used here: You shall receive what you deserve is a threat or promise rather than a prediction in present-day English, but in fact this d.
You will not move a muscle until I say usage is rare and old-fashioned. Will, like Its contracted form 'II, is used with all three persons to express futurity: I You will be here until five. There is a slight difference of meaning. The intention communicated by be going to is usually ascribed to the subject of The 'future progressive' form is another possible construction with will: Who the sentence - but not invariably.
In passive sentences, it Is often the intention will be driving? I'll be waiting for you. O agent that Is In question: I I hope we shall meet again quite soon. I I shall ask my 'non-agentive' verbs.
It thus covers a wider range of contexts than the lawyer to be present at the hearing. The earth shall be filled with God's glory. The time shall come when the poor She's going to have twins. This is the old-fashioned language of I think I'm going to faint. There's going to be a storm i. In ArnE, I shall and we shall are largely confined to very formal situations as in the orator's We shall never s u r r e n d e r.
In fact informally going to is reduced to I'gan;jl, a pro- the immediate future: If there is one general meaning that can be attached to this construction, it is Fl.
That pile of boxes is going to-fall! In fact, though, it is useful to distin- tottering' guish between two meanings, the Fl. I am going to of winning. When the clause with be going to contalns no time adverbial, immediate future is pronunciation represented gonna, where the second cannot.
We're going to download a house in the country Implies 'soon', unless some adverbial Indicates otherwise: It is generally clear which of the two variant meanings of be going to applies to 'What are you going to do today? He's going to arrive late at the concert letters.
I They're going to can mean either 'That is hIs Intention' or 'That is what will happen, if he goes on get married in a registry office. Anticipating a meeting with a long-lost cousin If you pay by cash you will normally obtain a receipt as proof of payment. But closing seven excellent schools is not going to save anything. Arguing against a proposal to save money The second of these sentences is less likely because the eventuality described im Be going to does not guarantee that the anticipated happening will actually in the main clause in such sentences depends on future rather than present come to pass.
This is illustrated most clearly in Past Tense examples: Be going to is suitable, however, if present cIrcumstances He was going to sue me, but I persuaded him it would be pointless. I The car was going to crash, but with the last wrench of the wheel I brought it to safety. We're going to find ourselves in difficulty if we go on like this. With the Past Tense, indeed, a frequent interpretation is that fulfilment did If you're expecting Wales to win, you're going to be disapPointed.
Non-fulfilment is also charac- Be going to implies that the conditions for the future event already exist. He's been going to flx that However, will could replace be going to in these two examples with little window-catch for months ' This Perfect form He's been going to More usual would be: He has been meaning to fix. Be going to has no non-progressive variant 'go es to, and so it cannot really be going to, as we see from the remote periods mentioned in these statements; considered a Progressive form, nor can it follow a Progressive: But it can follow a Perfect: I've been going to finish that job for ages.
In principle it can Present intention: I'm going to do what I like when I retire. Are you sure you're going to have finished the job by the time they arrive? I guess they're going to Present cause or train of events: If Winterbottom's calculations are be watching the World Cup all week. With a preceding will, going to can even express correct, this planet is going to burn itself out ,, years from now.
Call on me at lunchtime on Monday - I'll be going to speak to the boss about it that afternoon. These complex constructions are rare. If we take a fatalistic view of the future, of course, any coming event, however remote, can be thought to have its seeds in the present. In any case, there is often in people's speech a sense of destiny vague enough to bring be going to almost as close to a neutral 'future tense' as will.
The two constructions can often be substituted for one another with little change of effect: But there is a subtle difference from be going to: What will happen now? What is going to happen now?
Here are examples: Will you be away long? She's getting married this spring. I The Chelsea-Arsenal match is being played next Saturday.
I We're having fish for dinner. I j'm inviting several Following these trends, it seems that in more infonnal styles of English particularly in speech be going to is beginning to rival will as a fairly people to a party.
I When are we going back to France? The following two examples show be going to In each there is the implication of an arrangement already made: There is, however, a small change of emphasis, as is unless we add a future adverbial such as next year.
Illustrated in this pair of sentences: I'm going to take Mary out for dinner this evening. The aeroplane is landing, Our team Is winning, etc. But The aeroplane Is is something socially predetermined in the past, regardless of how the landing at Amsterdam could easily be Interpreted as 'future by arrangement'. So the second sentence, but not the first, could con- ceivably be uttered with some reluctance by someone who now regrets fIB The factor of 'plan' or 'arrangement' in the future meaning of the Present the arrangement.
It could very readily be used as an excuse: I'm sorry, I'd Progressive restricts its use in the main to 'doing' verbs involving conscious love to have a game of billiards with you, but I'm taking Mary out for dinner.
The social nature of an arrangement also means that it is somewhat John's getting up at 5 o'clock tomorrow. I'm watching 1V this evening unlike I'm going to watch TV this evening 'is a little odd, and seems to suggest that watching TV is an The second sentence is' absurd because it suggests that the rising of the arrangement that has been made by the speaker with others. For example, sun could be deliberately planned, instead of being determined by natural several football fans may have arranged to meet and watch their favourite law.
In this respect, the be going to future has wider application than the team on the television. Present Progressive future: This does not mean, however, that the Present Progressive is entirely limited to be aSSOCiated with the near rather than distant future. The element of 'doing verbs'. As with be going to, 'receive'. The inert meaning Is possIble because In this case the plan is understood however, the possibility remains of referring to the more remote future if to have been made and carried out by someone other than the subject of the it is seen as determined in advance: When I grow up, I'm lolning the police sentence; the meaning is approximately 'Someone has arranged to give me a present force.
The following incompatible with the Progressive Aspect; we can very well ask Who is captaining sentences Without adverbial modification are in fact ambiguous out of the team next Saturday?
I'm taking Mary out for a meal. I We're starting a bridge dub.
I Buffy and Rex are leaving. I My aunt's coming to stay with us. I They're being made redundant. I When you wake up, you'll remember nothing. I is generally intended: I Phone me as soon as ' sentences to make the imminence explicit. I Next time do as she tells you. The future use of the Present Progressive without a time adverbial seems Here the future is indicated by the ordinary Present Tense, instead of the to be chiefly limited to verbs of motion and some other verbs signifying construction with will that might be expected.
Apparently this is because single events. It can be said that in I'll tell you ON.
The Present Progressive here refers to a future scenario. As soon as the 'II in the main clause. Just suppose we miss the plane. I Make sure you get up early. I I mustn't forget to BE FAcr; that is, it attributes to the future the same degree of certainty we ask her how much she wants! I The man she marries will have to be rich.
Statements about the calendar The Simple Present is used especially where the main clause clearly sug- are the most obvious illustrations: I Next Christmas falls on a Thursday. I This Friday reference to the future through verbs like these, and a further use of ;s Abigail's birthday. I will would be redundant. But some verbs like hope and bet offer a choice between the Simple Present and will: I hope we will win. I bet you will But any aspect of the future which is regarded as immutable can be lose.
The future subordinate use of the Simple Present applies to other classes The semester starts on 1st February. I Next year the United Nations of verbs and adjectival expressions, followed by that-clauses and typically celebrates the sixtieth anniversary of its charter.
I The train leaves at 7. With this evening. Perhaps this is again because Since most future happenings are in principle subject to doubt, the present the independent clause clearly places the time-zone of the dependent futurate, which describes a future event by a categorical statement of fact, clause in the future, and no separate reference to the future in the is a special or 'marked' form of reference.
It overrides the normal feeling dependent clause is needed. A statement like Next week John fails his driving test is unthinkable except as an ironical a. If you already know the answers, you will pass the or the fact that Wednesday will succeed Tuesday.
Here the If-ClaUse can mean 'know the answers now' or 'know the answers when you take the exam'. Compared With the Simple Present, will is rather rare in if-clauses. If you'll i. On the other hand, the neutral 'predIc- We start for Istanbul tonight. I I get a lump sum when I retire at sixty- tIOn meaning of will is not impossible In if-clauses, as this example shows: I Her case comes before the magistrate next week. The effect of using will here is to make the relation between the if-clause and the The Simple Present is a 'marked' future here also: It sentence means 'If you can predict now that you Will be alone at the New Year let us know about it now or at least before the New Year '.
This Progressive: We are starting for Istanbul tonight announces a present plan I? If, at the New Year, you find yourself alone, let us know about it at that which could, conceivably, be altered later.
Is that true? Not much time left before my exams! There are pros and cons to all of them. Night night! Grab the bags, find your shoes and call a taxi! We should probably jump ship!
It will get easier. You should just let it lie. I must be losing my touch! I think we need to have a meeting about it and nip this in the bud before it becomes a real problem. Of course you should! It was far too spicy. Stop worrying about work so much.
The nurse will be with you in just a moment.