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Search Your Files. Join with us. The remaining liquid, now at a lower pressure, is vaporized in the evaporator as a result of heat transfer from the refrigerated space.
This vapor then enters the compressor. Reversibility A reversible process for a system is defined as a process that, once having taken place, can be reversed and leaves no change in either system or surroundings. The difference between a reversible and an irreversible process can be illustrated with the example below.
Suppose a gas under pressure is contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston. The piston is locked in place with a pin. If the pin is removed, the piston is raised and forced abruptly against the stopper. Work is done by the system during this process because the piston has been raised by a certain amount.
If the system has to be restored to its initial state, force has to be exerted on the piston until the pin can be reinserted. Since the pressure on the face of the piston is greater on the return stroke than on the initial stroke, the work done on the gas is greater on the return stroke than the work done by the gas in the initial process.
This caused an amount of heat to be transferred from the gas to the surroundings in order that the system have the same internal energy.
The fact that work was required to force the piston down and that heat was transferred to the surroundings during the reverse process makes the system an irreversible process. Another system has a number of weights loaded on the piston at the initial state.
The weights are removed from the piston one at a time, allowing gas to expand and do work in raising the weight remaining. Such characteristics are called properties of the system. These are all macroscopic in nature. Properties are the coordinates to describe the state of a system. They are the state variables of the system. Any operation in which one or more of the properties of a system changes is called a change of state. The succession of states passed through during a change of state is called the path of the change of state.
A thermodynamic cycle is defined as a series of state changes such that the final state is identical with the initial state. Properties may be of two types. An isolated system always reaches in course of time a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and can never depart from it spontaneously.
Thermodynamics studies mainly the properties of physical systems that are found in equilibrium states. There is no single pressure that refers to the system as a whole.
Both classical and statistical thermodynamics study mainly the equilibrium states of a system.