Microprocessor 8086 ak ray pdf

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wm-greece.info - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or Bharat Acharya Education Viva Microprocessors etc A.K. Ray _ K.M. Bhurchandi-Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals (3rd Edition). Bharat Acharya Education Viva Microprocessors etc A.K. Ray _ K.M. Bhurchandi-Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals (3rd Edition) Search PDF Books Com Microprocessor Interfacing and Programming by Doug. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy .

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Microprocessor 8086 Ak Ray Pdf

To describe the architecture of and its programming in assembly language. ✤. To present wm-greece.info and wm-greece.infoandi, “Advanced Microprocessors. Advanced Micro Processors & Peripherals AK RAY. admin. ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS AND PERIPHERALS AK RAY AMP DOWNLOAD FREE INTEL KM BHURCHANDI DOWNLOAD PDF( MB ). Basic Peripherals and their Interfacing with /88 6. Special Purpose Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals (Third Edition): A.K. Ray,K.M. Bhurchandi.

Structure[ edit ] A block diagram of the architecture of the Z80 microprocessor, showing the arithmetic and logic section, register file, control logic section, and buffers to external address and data lines The complexity of an integrated circuit is bounded by physical limitations on the number of transistors that can be put onto one chip, the number of package terminations that can connect the processor to other parts of the system, the number of interconnections it is possible to make on the chip, and the heat that the chip can dissipate. Advancing technology makes more complex and powerful chips feasible to manufacture. A minimal hypothetical microprocessor might include only an arithmetic logic unit ALU , and a control logic section. Each operation of the ALU sets one or more flags in a status register, which indicate the results of the last operation zero value, negative number, overflow, or others. The control logic retrieves instruction codes from memory and initiates the sequence of operations required for the ALU to carry out the instruction. A single operation code might affect many individual data paths, registers, and other elements of the processor. As integrated circuit technology advanced, it was feasible to manufacture more and more complex processors on a single chip. The size of data objects became larger; allowing more transistors on a chip allowed word sizes to increase from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's bit words. Additional features were added to the processor architecture; more on-chip registers sped up programs, and complex instructions could be used to make more compact programs. Floating-point arithmetic, for example, was often not available on 8-bit microprocessors, but had to be carried out in software. Integration of the floating point unit first as a separate integrated circuit and then as part of the same microprocessor chip sped up floating point calculations. Occasionally, physical limitations of integrated circuits made such practices as a bit slice approach necessary. Instead of processing all of a long word on one integrated circuit, multiple circuits in parallel processed subsets of each data word.

Such products as cellular telephones, DVD video system and HDTV broadcast systems fundamentally require consumer devices with powerful, low-cost, microprocessors. Increasingly stringent pollution control standards effectively require automobile manufacturers to use microprocessor engine management systems to allow optimal control of emissions over the widely varying operating conditions of an automobile.

Non-programmable controls would require complex, bulky, or costly implementation to achieve the results possible with a microprocessor. A microprocessor control program embedded software can be easily tailored to different needs of a product line, allowing upgrades in performance with minimal redesign of the product.

Different features can be implemented in different models of a product line at negligible production cost. Microprocessor control of a system can provide control strategies that would be impractical to implement using electromechanical controls or purpose-built electronic controls. For example, an engine control system in an automobile can adjust ignition timing based on engine speed, load on the engine, ambient temperature, and any observed tendency for knocking—allowing an automobile to operate on a range of fuel grades.

History[ edit ] The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society. General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display , and communication over the Internet. Many more microprocessors are part of embedded systems , providing digital control over myriad objects from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control.

The first use of the term "microprocessor" is attributed to Viatron Computer Systems [5] describing the custom integrated circuit used in their System 21 small computer system announced in By the late s, designers were striving to integrate the central processing unit CPU functions of a computer onto a handful of very-large-scale integration metal-oxide semiconductor chips, called microprocessor unit MPU chipsets.

Building on an earlier Busicom design from , Intel introduced the first commercial microprocessor, the 4-bit Intel , in , followed by its 8-bit microprocessor in AL-1, an 8-bit CPU slice that was expandable to bits.

The first microprocessors emerged in the early s and were used for electronic calculators , using binary-coded decimal BCD arithmetic on 4-bit words. Other embedded uses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals , printers , various kinds of automation etc.

Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mids on. Since the early s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has followed Moore's law ; this originally suggested that the number of components that can be fitted onto a chip doubles every year.

With present technology, it is actually every two years, [6] and as a result Moore later changed the period to two years. This section relies too much on references to primary sources.

Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. March Further information: Central Air Data Computer In , Garrett AiResearch who employed designers Ray Holt and Steve Geller was invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy 's new F Tomcat fighter. The design was significantly approximately 20 times smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models.

This system contained "a bit, pipelined , parallel multi-microprocessor ". The Navy refused to allow publication of the design until Payment Methods accepted by seller. BookVistas Address: November 24, Home A. Stock Image. Bhurchandi ISBN Ltd, New Condition: New Soft cover. Save for Later. download New Price: About this Item The third edition of this popular text continues integrating basic concepts, theory, design and real-life applications related to the subject technology, to enable holistic understanding of the concepts.

The chapters are introduced in tune with the conceptual flow of the subject; with in-depth discussion of concepts using excellent interfacing and programming examples in assembly language Table of Contents: The Processors: Architectures, Pin Diagrams and Timing Diagrams 2.

Special Architectural Features and Related Programming 5. Multimicroprocessor Systems 9. A Microprocessor with Memory Management and Protection What is microprocessor? A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven , register-based electronic device that reads binary information from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions, and provides result as output. Write the features of microprocessor? It is an 8-bit processor capable of addressing 64 KB of memory.

It has 16 address lines and the lower 8 address lines are multiplexed It is an enhanced version of its predecessor A. It can operate with 3MHZ single-phase clock. What is Accumulator? This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic and logical operations.

The result of an operation is stored in the accumulator. The accumulator is also identified as register A. Why AD0 — AD7 signal lines are multiplexed? The signal lines AD0 — AD7 are bidirectional. They serve a dual purpose.

They are used as the lower order address bus as well as data bus. In executing an instruction during the earlier part of the cycle, these lines are used as lower order bus. During the later part of the cycle, these lines are used as data bus.

This is known as multiplexing the bus. Give the format of flag register in This flag is set when the result of operation is negative number. Z- Zero flag. This flag is set when the result of operation is zero. AC- Auxiliary carry flag. In an arithmetic operation, when a carry is generate by digit D3 and passed onto digit D4. P- Parity flag. After an arithmetic or logical operation, if the result has an CY- Carry flag. If an arithmetic operation results in a carry, then the carry flag is set.

What is the use of PC and SP in ? There are 2 special purpose registers in Program Counter PC : It is an bit register and it is used to carry memory address of the next instruction to be executed. A bit Stack Pointer is used to hold the address of the most recent stack entry. This signal can be used as the system clock for other signals.

The signal can be used to reset other devices. Describe the function of following pins in READY b. When this signal goes low, the microprocessor waits for an integral number of clock cycles until it goes high. RESET IN: When the signal on this pin goes low, the program counter is set to zero, the buses are tri-stated and microprocessor is reset.

List the status signals in S0, S1: These signals can identify various operations opcode fetch, memory read etc. What is the use of ALE signal? It indicates that the bits on AD0 — AD7 are address bits.

How the instructions are classified according to word size? Explain the operation performed by when the following instructions are executed?

SBB C b. The result is stored in the Accumulator. RRC: The Accumulator content is rotated to the right side by one position. The bit D0 is shifted to both carry and D7. LDAX B b. XTHL: This instruction exchanges the memory location pointed by stack pointer with the contents of L register and the contents of the next memory location with the H register.

Explain the various steps involved when executing CALL instruction. The Call instruction is used to transfer the program control to a subroutine or Subprogram. There are 4 internal steps are performed when this instruction is executed. CALL 16 bit addr: This instruction transfers the program sequence to a subroutine address unconditionally.

The internal operations performed are: i. Jumps unconditionally to memory location specified by the second and third byte. What is stack? Differentiate between Jump and Call instructions. JUMP addr This instruction is used to transfer the program control unconditionally from the current memory location to the specified memory location within the program.

CALL addr This instruction is used to transfer the program control to the subroutine program. The subroutine program starts from the specified memory location.

What is a subroutine program?

A subroutine is a group of instructions written separately from the main program to perform a function that occurs repeatedly in the main program. Thus subroutines avoid the repetition of same set of instructions in the main program. Define instruction and instruction format.

An instruction is a command to the microprocessor to perform a given task on Specified data.

Advanced Microprocessors and Periperals by a K Ray and K M Bhurchandi

Each instruction has 2 parts: 1. Define addressing mode. Addressing mode is used to specify the way in which the address of the operand is specified within the instruction.

List the various types of addressing modes in POP rp: This instruction is used to retrieve the contents of specified register pair from stack. Explain the operational difference between the pair of instructions. XTHL: This instruction exchanges the contents of memory location pointed by stack pointer with the contents of L register and the contents of the next memory location with the contents of H register.

What is the use of Timing diagrams? Timing diagram is graphical representation instruction execution with respect to time. Define instruction cycle. It is defined as the time required to complete the execution of an instruction. The instruction cycle consists of 1 to 6 machine cycles. Define machine cycle. This cycle may consists of 3 to 6 T-states. Define T-state.

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It is defined as one subdivision of the operation performed in one clock period. The subdivisions are internal states synchronized with the system clock and each T-state is precisely equal to 1 clock period.

Write the machine cyles and no. IN 01H ii. Memory read 3T 10 3. Memory read 3T 3. Memory read 3T List the interrupt signals in Write the various types of machine cycles in What is the use of SIM instruction? It is an 1 byte instruction and can be used for 3 different functions. Set mask for RST 7. Reset RST 7. What is function of RIM instruction? This is a1-byte instruction that can be used for the following fuctions i. To read interrupt masks.

To identify pending interrupts iii. To receive serial data. What is nonmaskable interrupt? TRAP is the nonmaskable interrupt in It has the highest priority among Interrupt signal. When this interrupt is triggered, the program control is transferred to location H without any hardware or Interrupt enable instruction EI.

What are the different ways to disable the interrupt processs? The entire interrupt process is disabled by resetting the interrupt enable flip-flop. The flip-flop can be reset in one of 3 ways.

Instruction DI ii. System Reset iii. Recognition of an interrupt request What do you mean by vectored interrupts?

The vectored interrupts are automatically vectored to specific locations on memory without any external hardware. In , there are 4 vectored interrupts. The interrupts and their call locations are listed below.

Differentiate between Absolute and partial decoding. As a result the device has multiple addresses. Write a time delay program using bit register. What is simplex and duplex transmission? Simplex transmission: data are transmitted in only one direction. Duplex transmission: data flow in both directions. If the transmission goes one way at a time, it is called half duplex; if it goes both way simultaneously, then it is called full duplex.

Define Baud. The rate at which the bits are transmitted, bits per second is called Baud. SID — serial input data 3. What are the signals available for serial communication? SOD — serial output data 4. What is the use of checksum technique? The checksum technique is used when blocks of data are transferred. It involves adding all the bytes in a block without carries.

RTS — Request to send 5.

It is the output from data terminal equipment DTE. It can be used as a handshake signal. CS — chipselect 7. Write the control signals inA. It is a programmable device. What is use of control register? It is a bit register used to store the control word. The control word consists of 2 independent bytes: the first byte is called mode instruction and the second byte is called command instruction.

Write the features of A. What is BSR mode? All functions of are classified according to 2 modes. The BSR mode is used to set or reset the bits in port C. What is mode 0 operation of Each port can be programmed to function as an input port or an output port.

What are the modes of operation supported by ? Bit set reset mode BSR ii. Write the control word format for BSR mode. What is the function of STB signal? This signal is generated by a peripheral device to indicate that it has transmitted a byte of data. What is the function of IBF signal? IBF Input buffer full : This signal is an acknowledgement by the A to indicate that the input latch has received the data byte. What is mode2 operation? In this mode, port A can be configured as the bidirectional port and port B either In mode 0 or mode1.

The electronic circuit that translates an analog signal into a digital signal is called analog-to-digital converter ADC. The electronic circuit translates a digital signal into an analog signal is called Digital-to-analog converter DAC. Define conversion time. It is defined as the total time required to convert an analog signal into a digital output.

Microprocessor - Wikipedia

It is determined the conversion technique used and by the propagation delay in various circuits. Wait until the end of conversion iii.

Read the digital signal at an input port. Write the different types of ADC. Single slope ADC ii. Dual slope ADC iii.

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Successive approximation ADC iv. Parallel comparator type ADC v. Counter type ADC What is resolution time in ADC? It is defined as a ratio of change in value of input voltage Vi, needed to change the digital output by 1 LSB. List the functions performed by It has built-in hardware to provide key debounce. It provides a scanned interface to a 64 contact key matrix.

It provides multiplexed display interface with blanking and inhibit options. It provides three input modes for keyboard interface. What is key debounce?

The push button keys when pressed, bounces a few times, closing and opening the contacts before providing a steady reading. So reading taken during bouncing may be faulty. Therefore the microprocessor must wait until the key reach to steady state. This is known as key debounce.

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