PDF | As an introduction to basic literary forms, Introduction to English literature is a preparation for The Rise of the Novel, Appreciating Drama. Literature is as old as human language. • It starts with words, and with speech→ the 1st literature in any culture is oral. • In English, the 1st signs of oral literature. PDF version by Solitude. English. Literature. (Assembly Articles From Following the introduction of a printing press into England by William Caxton in.
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INTRODUCTION TO. STUDYING ENGLISH. LITERATURE. Edited by Dermot Cavanagh, Alan Gillis,. Michelle Keown, James Loxley and. Randall Stevenson. Introduction to Middle English Literature: The Medieval World. http://www. wm-greece.info • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: A Close. PDF Drive offered in: English. Browse's Introduction to the Symptoms & Signs of Surgical Disease 4th An Introduction to Literature, Criticism and Theory.
Major themes of this period include the attack on notions of hierarchy; experimentation in new forms of narrative, such as stream of consciousness; doubt about the existence of knowable, objective reality; attention to alternative viewpoints and modes of thinking; and self-referentiality as a means of drawing attention to the relationships between artist and audience, and form and content.
Naturalism c. Neoclassicism c.
Neoclassicism roughly coincided with the Enlightenment, which espoused reason over passion. Postcolonial literature c. This literature aims both to expand the traditional canon of Western literature and to challenge Eurocentric assumptions about literature, especially through examination of questions of otherness, identity, and race.
Postmodernism c. Postmodern literature is characterized by a disjointed, fragmented pastiche of high and low culture that reflects the absence of tradition and structure in a world driven by technology and consumerism. Pre-Raphaelites c. The Pre-Raphaelites combined sensuousness and religiosity through archaic poetic forms and medieval settings. Realism c. Technically, realism refers to a lateth- century literary movement—primarily French, English, and American—that aimed at accurate detailed portrayal of ordinary, contemporary life.
Naturalism see above can be seen as an intensification of realism. Romanticism c. The Romantics celebrated spontaneity, imagination, subjectivity, and the purity of nature. Surrealism s—s : An avant-garde movement, based primarily in France, that sought to break down the boundaries between rational and irrational, conscious and unconscious, through a variety of literary and artistic experiments. Symbolists s—s : A group of French poets who reacted against realism with a poetry of suggestion based on private symbols, and experimented with new poetic forms such as free verse and the prose poem.
In turn, they had a seminal influence on the modernist poetry of the early 20th century. Transcendentalism c. Victorian era c. Though remembered for strict social, political, and sexual conservatism and frequent clashes between religion and science, the period also saw prolific literary activity and significant social reform and criticism. Literary theory and literary criticism are interpretive tools that help us think more deeply and insightfully about the literature that we read.
Over time, different schools of literary criticism have developed, each with its own approaches to the act of reading. Schools of Interpretation Cambridge School s—s : A group of scholars at Cambridge University who rejected historical and biographical analysis of texts in favor of close readings of the texts themselves. Deconstruction —present : A philosophical approach to reading, first advanced by Jacques Derrida that attacks the assumption that a text has a single, stable meaning.
Therefore, it is impossible for a text to have stable meaning. Feminist criticism s—present : An umbrella term for a number of different critical approaches that seek to distinguish the human experience from the male experience. Feminist critics draw attention to the ways in which patriarchal social structures have marginalized women and male authors have exploited women in their portrayal of them.
Psychoanalytic criticism: Any form of criticism that draws on psychoanalysis, the practice of analyzing the role of unconscious psychological drives and impulses in shaping human behavior or artistic production.
The three main schools of psychoanalysis are named for the three leading figures in developing psychoanalytic theory: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Jacques Lacan.
According to Freud, artists sublimate their desires and translate their imagined wishes into art. We, as an audience, respond to the sublimated wishes that we share with the artist.
Jung holds that literature is an expression of the main themes of the collective unconscious, and critics often invoke his work in discussions of literary archetypes. Marx maintained that material production, or economics, ultimately determines the course of history, and in turn influences social structures.
These social structures, Marx argued, are held in place by the dominant ideology, which serves to reinforce the interests of the ruling class. Marxist criticism approaches literature as a struggle with social realities and ideologies. These thinkers applied the principles of Marxism to a wide range of social phenomena, including literature. Instead, it encourages readers to discover the meaning of a work through a detailed analysis of the text itself.
This approach was popular in the middle of the 20th century, especially in the United States, but has since fallen out of favor. Stephen Greenblatt is a leader in this field, which joins the careful textual analysis of New Criticism with a dynamic model of historical research. New Humanism c. Post-structuralism s—s : A movement that comprised, among other things, Deconstruction, Lacanian criticism, and the later works of Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault.
It criticized structuralism for its claims to scientific objectivity, including its assumption that the system of signs in which language operates was stable.
Queer theory consequently studies literary texts with an eye to the ways in which different authors in different eras construct sexual and gender identity. Russian Formalism — : A school that attempted a scientific analysis of the formal literary devices used in a text. The Stalinist authorities criticized and silenced the Formalists, but Western critics rediscovered their work in the s.
Ultimately, the Russian Formalists had significant influence on structuralism and Marxist criticism. Structuralism s—s : An intellectual movement that made significant contributions not only to literary criticism but also to philosophy, anthropology, sociology, and history.
Structuralist literary theory draws on the work of the Russian Formalists, as well as the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure and C. Literary Terms and Theories Literary theory is notorious for its complex and somewhat inaccessible jargon. The following list defines some of the more commonly encountered terms in the field.
Bloom suggests that poets find their distinctive voices in an act of misprision, or misreading, of earlier influences, thus refiguring the poetic tradition.
Although Bloom presents his thesis as a theory of poetry, it can be applied to other arts as well. Canon: A group of literary works commonly regarded as central or authoritative to the literary tradition. For example, many critics concur that the Western canon—the central literary works of Western civilization—includes the writings of Homer, Shakespeare, Tolstoy, and the like.
The first prose writer was the Venerable Bede, a 7th century scholar who wrote the Ecclesiastical History in Latin. Oh, and did I mention that I was born in his part of the country? He may be an ancestor of mine.
Or of yours. Remind me to give you the proof that everyone is related. Anglo-Saxon Poetry: No rhyme, and no strict metre.
Each half-line contains two stressed words or syllables and a variable number of unstressed syllables. Alliteration is used to bind the half-lines together.
Alliterating words either begin with the same consonant OR begin with any vowel. Here, like in the riddle poems and the knotwork designs, we see the Anglo-Saxon love of puzzles. For years after , England had French-speaking kings.
For a while, the same was true with lords and churchmen. Not surprisingly, the old Anglo-Saxon language merged with a lot of Norman French to create a non-declined language with a huge mixed vocabulary.
The Hundred Years War lessened the hold of French for patriotic reasons. The Black Death which arrived in England in and stayed for about 20 years lessened the hold of French for reasons of high mortality in both French and English speaking populations — but there were many more speakers of English.
By the time of Geoffrey Chaucer, English looked pretty recognizable. Written in rhyming couplets. Stories about rich and poor.
Romances are stories of knights and their adventures. It was one of the first printed books in English, thanks to William Caxton who set up a printing press in London in As everywhere else, this changed the nature of literature from a predominantly oral entertainment to a quiet one.
The Renaissance started in Italy and spread through Europe. The proudest boast that Renaissance artists, scholars, architects, poets, and scientists could make was that they did things as well as the ancients. You will read echoes of these debates. He ignited religious rebellion and started a new variety of Christianity: Lutheranism, the first Protestant religion. Efforts to destroy Protestantism and restore the unity of the Roman Catholic Church failed.
And that is why there are Protestant religions today: A Catholic could define a Protestant religion as a heresy that survived. He kept having to replace wives in the effort to have a male child, and the Pope refused to allow him to annul or divorce one after another. So Henry effectively made himself the Pope of England.
Still true, in a sense. Although the Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior cleric in the C. After 1. England became a naval power that defeated the Spanish fleet, the Dutch fleet, and planted colonies on other continents.