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Sejarah[ sunting sunting sumber ] Al-Biruni mengembangkan metode baru menggunakan kalkulasi trigonometri untuk menghitung radius dan keliling Bumi berdasarkan sudut antara garis horizontal dan horizon sejati dari puncak gunung yang ketinggiannya yang sudah diketahui. Dalam aljabar, seorang matematikawan menggunakan simbol x, y, atau z sebagai pengganti angka untuk menyelesaikan persoalan matematika. Bilangan irasional[ sunting sunting sumber ] Bangsa Yunani menemukan bilangan irasional , namun mereka tidak senang dan hanya mampu membedakan besaran dan bilangan. Dalam pandangan Yunani, besaran terus berubah dan dapat digunakan untuk beberapa hal seperti rentang garis, sedangkan bilangan bersifat diskret. Karena itu, bilangan irasional hanya dapat diselesaikan oleh geometri dan matematika Yunani memang cenderung geometris. Mereka bebas memperlakukan bilangan irasional seperti benda, tetapi mereka tidak mempelajari sifatnya secara teliti. Di Eropa Renaisans, ia dianggap sebagai penemu aljabar, meski sekarang sudah diketahui bahwa tulisannya didasarkan pada sumber-sumber India atau Yunani jauh lebih tua. Lihat pula: Induksi matematika Penjelasan rinci terawal tentang induksi matematika dapat ditemukan pada bukti Euklides bahwa bilangan prima tidak terhingga c. Di antara rentang waktu tersebut, bukti implisit dengan induksi untuk barisan aritmetika diperkenalkan oleh al-Karaji c. Solusinya adalah panjang garis horizontal dari asalnya ke titik potong garis vertikal dan sumbu x. Metode ini sudah dipakai oleh bangsa Yunani, [12] tetapi mereka tidak menggeneralisasi metode ini untuk semua persamaan berakar positif. Misal, untuk menyelesaikan persamaan.

Mendapat gelar M. Keunggulan Buku Dari buku ini kita dapat belajar tentang pemetaan pemikiran keislaman yang mendukung keragaman dan kemajuan dan para reaksioner yang menanggapinya, tetapi juga kita tahu pemikiran mereka satu demi satu, dan bagaimana juga semua itu dikritisi dari argumen demi argumen, ide demi ide, untuk melihat pemikiran-pemikiran mereka terutama pada akhir era Oder Baru hingga Reformasi.

Buku ini pantas dijadikan rujukan sekaligus untuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut, apa dan bagaimana perdebatan pemikiran Islam Indonesia berkembang dan berbentur satu sama lain. Kersten berhasil pula melihat kesinambungan dan kenirsinambungannya dalam sejarah pemikiran Islam Indonesia dan antarbangsa dengan melacak akar dan inspirasinya pada pemikiran klasik, modern, dan kontemporer Islam.

Siapa pun yang mengkaji atau ingin mengetahui perkembangan intelektual Islam Indonesia kontemporer harus membaca buku ini. Kekayaan dan arti-pentingnya di Indonesia--salah satu negara yang paling memberi harapan dalam transisi politik di dunia Muslim kontemporer--menarik untuk ditelaah.

Terbit pada momen yang tepat dan ditulis dengan sangat baik, buku Carool Kersten membentangkan sejarah intelektual menyangkut ide-ide dan perdebatan-perdebatan di antara para pemikir Muslim pada masa transisi demokrasi yang belum tuntas di Indonesia. Tinjauannya tentang perdebatan seputar isu-isu sekularisme, pluralisme, liberalisme, dan hukum Islam di Indonesia sungguh sulit ditandingi, dan menunjukkan pemahaman-mendalam tentang relevansi ide-ide ini dalam konteks reformasi politik dan etis di dunia.

Buku luar biasa ini mesti dibaca oleh siapa pun yang hendak mengkaji kontestasi wacana di ranah politik Muslim modern di Indonesia khususnya dan dunia Muslim umumnya. Robert W. Hefner, Penulis Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia Buku Carool Kersten ini melengkapi karya-karya ilmuwan dan peneliti asing yang mencoba membaca dan memetakan Islam di Indonesia secara umum. Berbeda dari ketiga karya tersebut, Kersten tidak menjadikan tokoh-tokoh besar, seperti Cak Nur dan Gus Dur, sebagai fokus kajiannya.

Ia juga menghindari keterjebakan untuk melihat organisasi mainstream seperti NU dan Muhammadiyah. Ia memilih untuk melihat dan menganalisis gagasan dan perkembangan intelektualisme, terutama dari sejumlah ilmuwan muda di Indonesia.

Menurutnya, mereka inilah yang justru ''bergelut dengan analisis yang lebih mendalam dan terperinci''. Inilah salah satu kekuatan buku ini yang tidak didapatkan di buku-buku lain yang sejenis.

Sebagai seorang ilmuwan, Kersten memang banyak menggeluti tentang traveling theory. Bagaimana ide, nilai, dan gagasan yang diusung oleh para pemikir tersebut bergulat di kalangan pemikir Islam Indonesia. While he does not appear to have shared the strong anti-Sufi views of some of his contemporaries, neither did he present Sufi approaches to the faith as normative, as did earlier teachers in the region such as Ahmad al-Qushashi.

For example, he did not actively urge his students to join Sufi orders. Though his lessons included selections from the great Sufi masters, especially al-Ghazali, he avoided those writings which were inclined to attract accusations of heterodoxy, such as the writings of the leading monists.

He was thus paying due respect to the Wahhabite Arabian environment in which he found himself. A change was taking place in terms of Malay Islamic education. Draft Only — Not for Citation 7 Al-Nawawi wrote exclusively in Arabic, and is reputed to have produced at least ninety-nine works Nasution Many are still included in the reading materials of reformist pesantrens in Indonesia Aboebakar He also issued many fatawa, or legal judgements, for his Malay audience both in Mecca and in Southeast Asia.

This work was completed in and, after receiving the sanction of scholars in Mecca and Cairo, was first published in the latter city. The fact that official sanction was obtained from religious authorities in Mecca and Cairo provides some insight into the character of this work.

Both of these cities in the late nineteenth century had become dominated by reformist thinking which was taking an increasingly anti-Sufi hue. Al-Nawawi contributed to a breaking of the Southeast Asian Sufi mould, as it were. His influence on Malay scholars returning to Southeast Asia contributed to the momentous changes which were about to take place in Southeast Asian Islam. He was born in Patani, and spent around thirty- five years studying and teaching in Mecca and Medina Nasution He was a prolific writer, and many of his works, which altogether numbered at least fifty-seven Azra , are still widely printed and used in Southeast Asia.

His writings covered wide ranging topics. Ahmad Patani was another Meccan based Patani scholar. He studied in both Cairo and Mecca, where by the mids he had risen to become supervisor of the Malay Printing Press under the Turkish authorities Matheson and Hooker He taught many Malay students in Mecca, the most famous of whom was Muhammad Yusuf , later known as Tok Kenali. Of considerable significance was his letter-based dialogue with Malay Muslims on important issues relating to the faith, a medium of communication which was to play a vital role in the spread of reformist thinking from Arabia to the Malay world.

Also worthy of note at this juncture is the significant contribution made by Arab immigrants to the Malay world. Yahya Sayyid Uthman encountered opposition from some Malay Muslims as a result of his vehement criticism of Sufi practice in the Malay world.

He launched a highly polemical attack on the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order. His view brought him into conflict with mystics among the local group of religious scholars who regarded his attacks as a threat to their position. The various societies in the Malay world were conservative, and ruling structures and paradigms were firmly entrenched during the periods examined thus far in this paper.

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In the Islamic theological arena, Sufis continued to hold centre stage during most of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as had been the case during the previous two centuries. Old debates continued to be played out, especially the tension between a reformed Sufism and radical theosophical doctrines.

However, the old world familiar to Southeast Asian Muslims underwent rapid change during the nineteenth century. Colonial powers gained varying degrees of control over the daily lives of Malay Muslims, with dramatic results. Old dogmas came to be increasingly put to the test and were found wanting.

As the nineteenth century closed, new solutions were sought for the new problem of external colonial domination. Furthermore, new theological approaches were explored as the dominance of a culture of continuity gave way to a new culture of change.

These dramatic changes resulting from colonialism heralded the end of the dominance of Sufism and the onset of a mood for theological reform. The process was still in its infancy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. In a sense, this period represents a bridge between two eras. Increasing contacts occurred between local rulers and the Ottoman Caliphate authorities in Turkey. Indonesian Muslims looked increasingly to the religious authorities in the world- wide Islamic community for guidance in their developing struggle against Dutch rule.

Modernist ideas were increasingly implanting themselves in the Malay- Indonesian world around this time. There is considerable evidence for this, and indeed the transmission was not merely to be a transferral of ideas which then developed in isolation in Southeast Asia, but rather it was to take the form of a Draft Only — Not for Citation 9 continuing dialogue between Malay Muslims and those of the Middle East where the modernist ideas had originated.

Bluhm-Warn ff has tracked the dialogue between Malay Muslims and the editors of the reformist periodical al-Manar in Egypt. The Malay individuals in question wrote seeking advice and legal judgements on a range of theological issues, economic and environmental matters, technological advances, issues of current political concern such as patriotism and nationalism, and a range of other matters.

Kaptein has devoted attention to a similar phenomenon between the Malay world and Mecca. The concern of the Southeast Asian writers in addressing these issues for resolution to the Middle East demonstrates two things: firstly, the perception from Southeast Asia of authority lying in the Arab world, and secondly a confidence in seeking and obtaining support from fellow Muslims in the face of conflict with non-Muslim authorities as well as with traditional Muslim leaders.

The ongoing Middle Eastern influence upon reformist developments in Southeast Asia was reinforced by the arrival in the Malay world of Ahmad Surkati, a Sudanese who had studied in both Mecca and Medina and who came to Java in as the inspector of Islamic schools as part a scholarship program sponsored by the Ottoman authorities and available for Indonesian Muslims to study in the Middle East.

Surkati had a major impact upon the developments within the modernist movement in Indonesia. He was a close associate of Ahmad Dachlan, who founded the Muhammadiyah in , and indeed Surkati had a great influence upon the Muhammadiyah during its early period.

The traditional leaders of Malay society, the Sultans, were not the only group to be targeted for criticism by the young modernists, who termed themselves the Kaum Muda Young Generation. They also directed strong and sustained criticism towards the Kaum Tua Old Generation traditionalists who appeared to them to protect and defend unquestioningly the domination of conservative religious scholars in the sphere of Islamic worship and belief.

This region had long served as a channel for new ideas coming from the Middle East into the Malay world.

A number of leading Minang scholars based themselves in Mecca, such as Shaykh Ahmad Khatib , and exerted the kind of influence on visiting Malay students as we saw earlier with Muhammad al-Nawawi. He also attacked features of Minang customary law which he considered as unislamic, such as the inheritance law within the matrilineal structure of Minang society Djamal ff.

The pre-independence nationalist movements were then faced with the task of translating ideologies into structures of state, and several features are worthy of note at this juncture.

First, in contrast with efforts to break the link between ethnicity and religion by earlier modernist thinkers, Malaya, then Malaysia, enshrined this link in its constitution. Second, the post-independence period witnessed ongoing rivalry between traditionalists and modernists in seeking to hold the centre of the Islamic stage.

Furthermore, the second half of the twentieth century witnessed the evolution of neo-modernist Islamic thinking in Malaysia and Indonesia. Early signs of this were reflected in the struggle by some Indonesian Muslims, supported by Indonesian non-Muslim leaders, in favour of establishing the principle of an officially multi-religious state, arguing against the priority of Islam.

This is most clearly seen in the Pancasila concept developed by Sukarno in and established as the philosophy of the Indonesian State. Thus the old world was gradually being swept away by the new modes of Islamic thinking. Traditional authority structures were being challenged, as was the right of Sufi approaches to hold centre stage on the Malay theological arena. However, categories are subject to debate, and labels are used in different ways by different scholars.

The long-established division between modernists and traditionalists has been challenged by much recent scholarship, which considers variously that three or four broad categories have emerged Abdillah The materials examined for this present paper suggest a four-fold typology, which still affirms a core division between modernism and conservative traditionalism, but which adds the categories of neo-modernism Draft Only — Not for Citation 11 and radical Islamism.

Tendencies to reformist thinking are not the exclusive preserve of any single category, but rather manifest themselves within each of the four groups, as will be seen from the discussion which follows. In order to provide focus, discussion will be devoted to the Indonesian context.

This stream emerged in Indonesia in the late s and s, with its leaders drawn from graduates of the traditionalist pesantren or madrasah schools Barton Jalaluddin Rakhmat, a leading Indonesian scholar of Islam, points to certain specific viewpoints shared by Indonesian neo-modernists. These values need to be agreed by non-Muslims as well as Muslims, in the view of the neo-modernists.

Overall, the neo-modernists are more concerned with the essence of Islamic teaching than its form. Thus debate over whether women should wear the hijab is not considered as important as ethical lifestyles. Neo- modernists are more positively disposed to Western liberal thought; they prioritise social and economic interests over political power and they cooperate with secular groups Schwarz Harun Nasution was one of the most prominent Indonesian Neo- Modernists of the twentieth century.

He was born in Pematang Siantar, Sumatra, and spent periods in both Dutch and Islamic system schools before undertaking university studies in the Middle East. Dissatisfied with studies of the Islamic sciences at Al-Azhar University, Nasution transferred himself to the American University of Cairo, where he completed undergraduate studies with majors in education and sociology. Nasution then entered the diplomatic service of the government of the newly independent Republic of Indonesia.

In he returned to Cairo to undertake studies of Islamic Law. Under his leadership, the IAIN in Jakarta developed a dynamic, modern curriculum, combining studies of the traditional Islamic sciences with subjects drawn from modern western educational models such as Sociology, Anthropology, Comparative Religion and secular Philosophy Saeed Martin, Woodward and Atmaja In this way he demonstrated a certain measure of courage which characterised his writing throughout his long career.

Another key Neo-Modernist is Nurcholish Madjid His early education included both government and pesantren schools, followed by undergraduate studies at the IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah in Jakarta, majoring in Arab literature. Arguably his most influential initiative has been his establishment in of the Paramadina Foundation Yayasan Wakaf Paramadina , for which he is Chairman. Paramadina serves as a think-tank, issuing press statements, speeches and a range of published materials via hardcopy, audio and internet media, commenting on wide-ranging issues related to Islam and the modern world.

Nurcholish has been a prolific writer, producing various books and a vast number of published articles. He gives support to the established modernist call for Islam to engage with modern times.

Nurcholish argues for the ultimate separation of Islam and politics. The state is one Draft Only — Not for Citation 13 of the aspects of worldly life whose dimension is rational and collective, while religion is an aspect of another kind of life whose dimension is spiritual and personal.

The Modernists The second stream of Islamic thought which deserves separate discussion is that of the Modernist Reformists. This group, descending from the modernist revolution in Islamic thought which emerged in Egypt at the beginning of the twentieth century, is very critical of traditionalist Islam on two counts: first, for what is seen as syncretistic practices among some traditionalists, which modernists consider to cause decay in the faith, and second, for the traditionalist penchant for taqlid or uncritical following of the dictates of religious leaders at the expense of creatively engaging with the Islamic scriptures Barton Modernists tend to draw their support from urban populations, and regard Western liberal thought — and that of Muslim neo-modernists — with suspicion, as they consider the latter to risk selling out on important aspects of the faith.

They are committed to consolidating Islam as a powerful political force, but are committed to constitutional processes. The prominent Indonesian political figure Dr Amien Rais serves as a late twentieth century representative of this group to supplement those figures from the earlier part of the century discussed previously.

He was born in , and received his school education in a Muhammadiyah school in Solo. In my opinion, this is a good sign.

So, Bismillah in the name of Allah I braved myself to be the one to say it. Amien Rais has written a vast number of articles in newspapers and journals. Cakrawala Islam: Antara Cita dan Fakta , his first book, comprises a selection of his essays which address a range of Islamic issues and challenges.

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These place a particular focus upon political issues and matters of state and the role of Islam in the modern world. His second volume, Tauhid Sosial: Formula Menggempur Kesenjangan , appeared after Rais had been occupying the position of Chairman of Muhammadiyah for some years, and it therefore gives an invaluable insight into the thinking at the upper echelons of that organisation. The Traditionalists The third stream of Islamic thought is that of conservative traditionalism.

On the other they include a response to these syncretistic practices from traditionalist clerics, who urge a closer adherence to scriptural dictates, and above all obedience to established religious leadership. The primary non-political voice for orthodox traditionalism in Indonesian has long been the NU, which was established in Thus Islam fits within the structure of Indonesia, rather than the reverse as would be insisted upon by radical Islamists, discussed below.

The membership of this organisation currently stands at around thirty million Mujiburrahman , with the NU controlling an extensive educational system comprising pesantren, which encompasses kindergartens, junior high schools, senior high schools, nineteen universities and twenty-six other academic institutions Mangkey In spite of the history of NU traditionalism, in recent years young NU cadres have become more responsive to new ideas and the challenges of modernity.

This is partly due to the increasing influence of activist non-government organisations NGO via the pesantren system of Islamic schools run by the NU. It establishes agreements with pesantrens, using them as a focus of community development work, and also runs regular seminars and workshops halaqah focusing on social issues in the context of Islamic jurisprudence fiqh , such as the fiqh of land, the fiqh of tax, and the fiqh of just leadership Effendi H Fachurrozi focuses on treating Islamic scholars santri suffering from mental illnesses.

The healing methods represent a mix of alternative medicines and mystical practice Kurniawan Another body which articulates the conservative traditionalist viewpoint is the Indonesian Council of Islamic Scholars Majelis Ulama Indonesia - MUI , which gathers together religious leaders at various levels from across the archipelago. Nevertheless, within such a body varying voices can be heard, representing the different streams of Islamic thought being examined within these pages.

ENSIKLOPEDI-AKHIR-ZAMAN-by-Dr-Muhammad-Ahmad-Al-mubayyadh -...

The Radical Islamists The fourth and final stream of Islamic thought which we will examine is that of the Islamists. This is the group which attracts much international media attention, and is variously referred to according to degrees of commitment as extremist, fundamentalist, radical, or Islamist. This group may work within the democratic system, but is ultimately committed to replacing such a system with Islamic structures, allocating a priority to Islamic Law, leadership by Muslims, and primacy of Islamic scriptural injunctions.

For most of the twentieth century a clearly discernible radical Islamist movement has not been a significant part of the Southeast Asian Islamic stage. Draft Only — Not for Citation 16 This does not mean that such a phenomenon has been entirely absent.

Radical Islamists have never looked like gaining power in any Southeast Asian Muslim society. And the Islamist calls for revolution, so prevalent in the Middle East in the latter half of the twentieth century, have been absent from mainstream opposition groups such as the political party PAS in Malaysia and the social organisation Muhammadiyah in Indonesia. However, the s witnessed a discernible surge in Southeast Asian Islamist activity, particularly following the fall of President Suharto in During this period, Islamists were marginalized and considered as fascists… Suharto at this time was also anti-Islam… Later Suharto changed.

From the atmosphere was more conducive for the Islamic umma — the Bank Muamalat was established, ICMI was set up, the cabinet became light green. Sumargono was imprisoned for six months during after a speech he gave which was critical of the Suharto regime.

In his private life Sumargono seeks to provide a model of strict adherence to Islamic precepts. He insists that his daughters wear hijab, and forbids his children to walk in public with members of the opposite sex in pairs. He argues that polygamy is permissible, providing it follows religious guidelines and the first wife agrees. He argues that it is a very effective mechanism for caring for widows and their children Sumargono Support for Islamists is gaining ground among segments of the Muslim youth in Indonesia.

A young Islamist who is achieving increasing prominence, especially among student activists, is H. Muhammad Anis Matta.

Ensiklopedia Islam Indonesia by Iain Syarif Hidayatullah

Born in October in Bone, South Sulawesi, Anis Matta has made a name for himself as a fiery young preacher, with his sermons achieving wide distribution in both cassette form and on the Internet. Beyond the immediate political stage, radical Islamist sentiment is articulated by several groups.

In March the Indonesian Muslim Students Association Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia — KAMMI was established, and became very active organising demonstrations in subsequent years, with protests becoming increasingly intense as regional and sectarian conflicts flared in The leader of KAMMI, Fahri Hamzah, said in interview that Indonesia should be governed according to Islamic tenets, with the immediate banning of night-clubs, alcohol, and prostitution Loveard The late s witnessed the emergence of the Ahlu Sunnah wal Jamaah Laskar Jihad, a radical group committed to conducting military jihad on behalf of Muslim communities in Indonesia which are in conflict with non-Muslim neighbours.

It first emerged as a coherent group during the troubles in the Moluccas. There were regular reports of massacres of Christians by Laskar Jihad fighters, as well as forced conversions to Islam and forced circumcisions between In the wake of the terrorist bombing of nightclubs in Kuta Beach, Bali, on October 12, , Laskar Jihad spokesmen announced that the organisation was to be disbanded.

There were reports of Laskar Jihad fighters leaving the Moluccas and Sulawesi at the time of writing.

Draft Only — Not for Citation 18 Another group which has achieved notoriety in the early years of the 21st century is the Jemaah Islamiyah. It was established by Surakarta-born Abdullah Achmad Sungkar in the s. He recruited youthful zealots, of whom around underwent training at military camps in Afghanistan established by the international radical group Al-Qa'ida, responsible for the terrorist attacks on United States targets on September 11, This figure wears several hats. He heads the activist pesantren Al-Mukmin Ngruki, which is located in Ngruki village in Sukoharjo, some 30 kilometers east of Surakarta, and has an enrolment of some students Kartika By the early s Jemaah Islamiyah had been heavily infiltrated by al-Qa'ida Gunaratna Radical Islamist sentiment is also nurtured by events such as the First Indonesian Mujahidin Congress held in Yogyakarta in early August This event was attended by people, and donations were received from Muslims in Sweden, Germany and Australia.

Criticism was voiced of the Turkish model of secularisation developed by Attaturk, with fears that Indonesia might go down same route. Rather labels should be seen as a convenient method of short-hand. The typologies built around these labels should be used to provide general guidelines in seeking to understand the complexities of various ideologies, including the faith of Islam in Southeast Asia.

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