5 Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research. • 8 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). 8 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). • 7 Indian Institute of. PDF | In the contemporary world one central question to the policy maker is In this context, India: Science and Technology Report, the third. PDF | Indian heritage is one of the richest and oldest among the world. From the time of ancient India, scientific and technological developments were done.
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Science and Technology- The Beginning. 1. Development in different branches of Science in Ancient India: Astronomy, Mathematics, Engineering and Medicine. Policies aimed at projecting India as a Science & Technology powerhouse & promoting both public & private sector involvement in the. Science and Technology in India. Notes. Indian Culture and Heritage Secondary Course. MODULE - VI. Science and. Technology. SCIENCE AND.
Managing technological revolutions poses challenges. Certain innovations and discoveries will raise fraught bio-ethical issues, as genetic modification of food crops and cloning of human embryos has already done.
There is a risk that their cost, particularly in the early stages of development, will worsen the present inequality by limiting access to wealthy individuals. This already happens in health care in certain G7 countries, where the demand for very high-cost diagnostic equipment and surgical interventions enabling longevity and better quality of life for older wealthy people overstretches public health care budgets, and lowers service quality in poor neighborhoods.
Finally, resource-intensive technologies, focused on satisfying high consumption demand, like holidays abroad in costal resorts, wilderness areas, or iconic cities, increase carbon emissions and environmental damage.
To promote technological advances, developing countries should invest in quality education for youth, continuous skills training for workers and managers, and should ensure that knowledge is shared as widely as possible across society. In a world in which the Internet makes information ubiquitous, what counts is the ability to use knowledge intelligently.
Knowledge is the systemically integrated information that allows a citizen, a worker, a manager, or a finance minister to act purposefully and intelligently in a complex and demanding world.
The only form of investment that allows for increasing returns is in building the stocks and flows of knowledge that a country or organization needs, an in encouraging new insights and techniques. Adopting appropriate technologies leads directly to higher productivity, which is the key to growth. In societies that have large stock and flows of knowledge, virtuous circles that encourage widespread creativity and technological innovation emerge naturally, and allow sustained growth over long periods.
In societies with limited stocks of knowledge, bright and creative people feel stifled and emigrate as soon as they can, creating a vicious circle that traps those who remain in a more impoverished space.
Such societies stay mired in poverty and dependency. He further held that atoms of same substance combined with each other in a specific and synchronized manner to produce dvyanuka diatomic molecules and tryanuka triatomic molecules.
He correctly propounded that the Earth is round, rotates on its own axis and revolves around the Sun i. He also made predictions about the solar and lunar eclipses, duration of the day as well as the distance between the Earth and the Moon.
The ancient Persians had also attempted to reduce zinc oxide in an open furnace but had failed. The distillation technique of zinc production goes back to the 12th Century AD and is an important contribution of India to the world of science. Before these globes were rediscovered in the s, modern metallurgists believed that it was technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology.
The text mentions various illnesses, plants, preparations and cures along with complex techniques of plastic surgery. The first cataract surgery is said to have been performed by the ancient Indian physician Sushruta, way back in 6th century BCE. He crafted long iron tubes, filled them with gunpowder and fastened them to bamboo poles to create the predecessor of the modern rocket.
In addition, the government directly regulates many aspects of medical technology to ensure safety and control costs, further distorting market signals. Finally, health care involves such basic human conditions as birth, disease, and ultimately death. Under such conditions, individual consumers often ignore economic considerations; yet the total cost of health care is a matter of enormous national concern.
The effects of technical progress on costs depend to a large extent on the social and institutional structures surrounding the health care system. For example, technological superiority in the hands of a well-trained military contributed greatly to the success of the Persian Gulf War.
The United States will continue to rely on this strategy to retain military advantage, but the sources of new military technology are shifting. This segment of industry has had essentially one customer, and its requirements were focused on product performance more strongly than on cost. In the s and s, the defense industry produced much technology of value to civilian industry.
But today the technological sophistication of civilian industry in many cases surpasses that of the defense industry.
As a result, the military has become more dependent on civilian technologies. This trend will make improvements in national security more dependent on overall national economic performance. A major challenge facing the military today is to maintain technological superiority in the face of declining defense budgets.
Meeting this challenge will require a reexamination of the broad scientific and technological base that contributes to military needs, including research and development in government laboratories, in industry, and in universities. Environmental Protection Over the past two decades, the United States has recognized and has made substantial progress in curbing the degradation of the environment. Nevertheless, difficult problems remain.
Emissions and effluents of contaminated materials continue, waste disposal plagues urban areas, forests continue to be devastated, and biodiversity losses are growing. At the same time, science and technology have exposed new issues of great complexity and uncertain consequences, such as global warming, acid precipitation, the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, and the contamination of water supplies.
By the middle of the twenty-first century, the human population is projected to double to around 11 billion people, and, to meet their basic needs, the global economy will need to be several times larger than it is now.
In some situations, existing technologies can be made cleaner and more efficient; in others, entirely new technologies, including energy technologies, will be needed. Almost all fields of science and technology can contribute to the reduction of environmental degradation.
Biotechnology, materials science and engineering, and information technologies can enable the efficient use of raw materials and prevent pollution at the source. Reducing and preventing pollution is an important goal of the new field of industrial ecology, which, by examining industrial processes, strives to maintain sustainable technological growth. Nevertheless, even if science and technology are not sufficient by themselves to resolve societal issues, they are necessary for progress.
Although such factors as better skills among workers and new methods of organizing production will continue to contribute to economic expansion, new technologies will continue to be the major force behind the generation of new wealth.
Engineering, increasingly science-based, could not have achieved its present level of sophistication without its base of scientific knowledge. This increasing integration of science and technology also applies in reverse: technological problems now inspire important areas of science, even as science broadens the scope and capabilities of technology.
Given the fact that science and technology are necessary, but not sufficient, elements of human progress, we as a nation face important questions: How great an investment in science and technology should we make to meet national needs?
How can we best measure national performance in science and technology? The committee turns to these questions next.