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This technique worked on both Internet Explorer version 4 and Netscape Navigator version 4 onwards. The Web development community, first collaborating via the microsoft. In addition, the World Wide Web Consortium has several Recommendations that also allow for dynamic communication between a server and user agent, though few of them are well supported. Ajax creates the necessary initial conditions for the evolution of complex, intuitive, dynamic, data-centric user interfaces in web pages—the realization of that goal is still a work in progress.
Web pages, unlike native applications, are loosely coupled, meaning that the data they display are not tightly bound to data sources and must be first marshaled set out in proper order into an HTML page format before they can be presented to a user agent on the client machine. For this reason, web pages have to be re-loaded each time a user needs to view different datasets. By using the XMLHttpRequest object to request and return data without a re-load, a programmer by-passes this requirement and makes the loosely coupled web page behave much like a tightly coupled application, but with a more variable lag time for the data to pass through a longer "wire" to the remote web browser.
For example, in a classic desktop application, a programmer has the choice of populating a tree view control with all the data needed when the form initially loads, or with just the top-most level of data— which would load more quickly, especially when the dataset is very large. In the second case, the application would fetch additional data into the tree control depending on which item the user selects.
An example of this technique is a large result set where multiple pages of data exist. In addition to "load on demand" of contents, some web-based applications load stubs of event handlers and then load the functions on the fly.
This technique significantly cuts down the bandwidth consumption for web applications that have complex logic and functionality. Separation of data, format, style, and function A less specific benefit of the Ajax approach is that it tends to encourage programmers to clearly separate the methods and formats used for the different aspects of information delivery via the web. Although Ajax can appear to be a jumble of languages and techniques, and programmers are free to adopt and adapt whatever works for them, they are generally propelled by the development motive itself to adopt separation among the following: 1.
Raw data or content to be delivered, which is normally embedded in XML and sometimes derived from a server-side database. Style elements of the webpage: everything from fonts to picture placement are derived by reference to embedded or referenced CSS. Functionality of the webpage, which is provided by a combination of: 1. Disadvantages Browser integration The dynamically created page does not register itself with the browser history engine, so triggering the "Back" function of the users' browser might not bring the desired result.
Developers have implemented various solutions to this problem. These solutions can involve using invisible IFRAMEs to invoke changes that populate the history used by a browser's back button. Google Maps, for example, performs searches in an invisible IFRAME and then pulls results back into an element on the visible web page.
Another issue is that dynamic web page updates make it difficult for a user to bookmark a particular state of the application. Solutions to this problem exist, many of which use the URL fragment identifier  the portion of a URL after the ' ' to keep track of, and allow users to return to, the application in a given state.
It is, however, not a complete solution.
Response-time concerns Network latency — or the interval between user request and server response — needs to be considered carefully during Ajax development. Without clear feedback to the user, smart preloading of data and proper handling of the XMLHttpRequest object, users might experience delays in the interface of the web application, something which they might not expect or understand.
Additionally, when an entire page is rendered there is a brief moment of re-adjustment for the eye when the content changes.
This problem is not specific to Ajax, as the same issue occurs with sites that provide dynamic data as a full-page refresh in response to, say, a form submit the general problem is sometimes called the hidden, or deep web.
Since Ajax alters this process, care must be taken to account for how to instrument a page or a portion of a page so that it can be accurately tracked. Analytics systems which allow for the tracking of events other than a simple page view, such as the click of a button or link, are the ones most likely to be able to accommodate a site which heavily utilizes Ajax. This is part of the user experience design. User experience is related to layout, clear instructions and labeling on a website.
How well a user understands how they can interact on a site may also depend on the interactive design of the site. If a user perceives the usefulness of the website, they are more likely to continue using it.
Users who are skilled and well versed with website use may find a more distinctive, yet less intuitive or less user-friendly website interface useful nonetheless. However, users with less experience are less likely to see the advantages or usefulness of a less intuitive website interface. This drives the trend for a more universal user experience and ease of access to accommodate as many users as possible regardless of user skill.
Advanced interactive functions may require plug-ins if not advanced coding language skills. Choosing whether or not to use interactivity that requires plug-ins is a critical decision in user experience design. If the plug-in doesn't come pre-installed with most browsers, there's a risk that the user will have neither the know how or the patience to install a plug-in just to access the content.
If the function requires advanced coding language skills, it may be too costly in either time or money to code compared to the amount of enhancement the function will add to the user experience. There's also a risk that advanced interactivity may be incompatible with older browsers or hardware configurations.
Publishing a function that doesn't work reliably is potentially worse for the user experience than making no attempt.
It depends on the target audience if it's likely to be needed or worth any risks. Page layout Part of the user interface design is affected by the quality of the page layout.
For example, a designer may consider whether the site's page layout should remain consistent on different pages when designing the layout. Page pixel width may also be considered vital for aligning objects in the layout design.
The most popular fixed-width websites generally have the same set width to match the current most popular browser window, at the current most popular screen resolution, on the current most popular monitor size.
Most pages are also center-aligned for concerns of aesthetics on larger screens. Fluid layouts increased in popularity around as an alternative to HTML-table-based layouts and grid-based design in both page layout design principle and in coding technique, but were very slow to be adopted. Accordingly, a design may be broken down into units sidebars, content blocks, embedded advertising areas, navigation areas that are sent to the browser and which will be fitted into the display window by the browser, as best it can.
As the browser does recognize the details of the reader's screen window size, font size relative to window etc. Although such a display may often change the relative position of major content units, sidebars may be displaced below body text rather than to the side of it. This is a more flexible display than a hard-coded grid-based layout that doesn't fit the device window.
In particular, the relative position of content blocks may change while leaving the content within the block unaffected. This also minimizes the user's need to horizontally scroll the page. Responsive Web Design is a newer approach, based on CSS3, and a deeper level of per-device specification within the page's style sheet through an enhanced use of the CSS media rule.
In March Google announced they would be rolling out mobile-first indexing. Typography Main article: typography Web designers may choose to limit the variety of website typefaces to only a few which are of a similar style, instead of using a wide range of typefaces or type styles. Most browsers recognize a specific number of safe fonts, which designers mainly use in order to avoid complications.
Font downloading was later included in the CSS3 fonts module and has since been implemented in Safari 3. This has subsequently increased interest in web typography , as well as the usage of font downloading. Most site layouts incorporate negative space to break the text up into paragraphs and also avoid center-aligned text. The choice of whether or not to use motion graphics may depend on the target market for the website. Motion graphics may be expected or at least better received with an entertainment-oriented website.
However, a website target audience with a more serious or formal interest such as business, community, or government might find animations unnecessary and distracting if only for entertainment or decoration purposes. This doesn't mean that more serious content couldn't be enhanced with animated or video presentations that is relevant to the content.
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