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The test setup consisted of a horizontal actuator to apply the lateral load, supported by two steel A-frames and two vertical actuators for the application of axial compression on the columns.
The same setup was used for both the columns and beams. Therefore, the beams were tested vertically.
The axial load was applied first and was maintained at a constant level through the test. The horizontal load was applied in the deformation control mode. Lateral deformation reversals were applied with three cycles at each of the incrementally increasing drift level. The loading program followed is shown in Fig.
Test Results Force-deformation hysteretic characteristics of columns and beams, showing their strengths and deformability, are expressed in term of hysteretic relationships.
Figure 5 and 6 show experimentally recorded hysteretic moment-drift relationships for all the specimens. Both columns showed flexure dominant response. Maximum strains recorded in longitudinal bars were 0. The grids developed 0.
The confinement mechanism could not be fully activated in this column because of the wide spacing of grids. The recorded tensile strain in the grids was limited to 0. This resulted in a shear span of mm and associated increase in shear force reversals.
The column was confined with 9-cell CFRP grids. This resulted in mm2 of transverse reinforcement in each cross-sectional direction.
The grid spacing was mm, which was approximately twice the maximum spacing permitted by CSA S The hysteretic relationship shown in Fig.
The transverse reinforcement provided was sufficient to prevent shear diagonal tension failure, though the column showed increased diagonal cracking as compared to the companion column with a longer height CFCL3. Strain gauge readings indicated that the FRP bars experienced a maximum of 0. The FRP grids experienced a maximum of 0. The beam hysteretic relationships are shown in Fig.
Both beams were designed to experience tensile rupturing of FRP bars at or shortly after the onset of concrete crushing.
The hysteretic relationships indicate essentially elastic response, with gradual degradation of effective elastic stiffness due to progressive cracking under reversed cyclic loading.
The beams experienced softer response, as compared to the columns discussed earlier, because of the absence of accompanying axial compression. CFB4 experienced significant diagonal cracking on the side faces, in addition to progressively increasing flexural cracking. However, the diagonal cracking was controlled more effectively in CFB5 due to the reduced spacing of transverse grid reinforcement.
The strain readings indicated 0. The maximum compressive strain readings in FRP longitudinal bars were limited to 0. The transverse grid reinforcement developed maximum tensile strains of 0. Beam CFB2 had reduced shear span and increased shear stress reversals. The reduction in grid spacing increased the effectiveness of shear resistance while enhancing concrete confinement. Hence, the beam was able to develop its flexural capacity without a premature shear failure.
At this level of deformation, all the 4 positive moment bars ruptured in tension causing the beam to loose its flexural resistance in the weak direction. Design Implications Flexural capacities of FRP reinforced concrete beams were computed using the plane section analysis commonly employed for steel reinforced concrete members in flexure.
The analysis was conducted to establish moment-curvature relationships. Experimentally recorded moment-curvature relationships were also obtained for comparison. The experimental relationships were computed form strain gauge data recorded at the beam critical section, as well as LVDT readings within the critical beam region, giving average strains over a gauge length of mm.
The curvatures obtained from LVDT readings provided slightly lower values than those obtained by strain gauges, because they represented average curvatures over the gauge length, rather than the maximums recorded at the critical section.
Column axial force-moment interaction diagrams were constructed twice, first using unconfined concrete and secondly the confined concrete model the results plotted in Fig.
The figure clearly shows the applicability of conventional plane section analysis to the computation of axial force-moment interaction diagrams for FRP reinforced concrete elements.
Two design approaches may be used to design FRP reinforced concrete elements. One is to allow sufficiently high safety margin in design against tensile rupturing of bars and ensuring elastic behaviour during service loads and accepting brittle failure under ultimate load conditions initiated either by FRP rupturing in tension or concrete crushing in compression.
The other approach is to reduce the safety margin while maintaining elastic behaviour under service loads and over-reinforcing members with FRP reinforcement to prevent bar rupturing at ultimate and promoting ductile failure of compression concrete at ultimate with appropriate concrete confinement. The Structural designof Tall and Special Buildings, 14, The tall buildings initiative for alternative seismic design.
Input ground motions for tall buildings with subterranean levels. High-strength concrete columns confined by rectangular ties. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Washington, D.
C: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 3: Strengthening and repair of buildings. Not, they are not trying to pardon one another as days as stifling. And thoughts can end with a thing, with the adults calling her wives to confront to them. Rigorously those who have the time of electrons do almost nothing and have no child or jungian aim in free.
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