Medical Bacteriology. Abilo Tadesse, Meseret Alem. University of Gondar. In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center . A Text-Book of Medical Bacteriology provides information pertinent to the medical aspects of bacteriology. This book presents the biological relationship of allied. PDF | Preface Bacteria are found in all habitats; are unicellular and The importance of medical bacteriology is due to a higher rate of.
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PDF | Practical assistant book for Detection and Identification of Medical Bacteriology for second stage of pharmacy. PDF | 5+ minutes read | On Dec 9, , Bhanu Shrivastava and others published MEDICAL BACTERIOLOGY. I found the Color Atlas of Medical Bacteriology, 2nd edition, to be a rich compilation of information, photographs, and illustrations that can aid.
A strong point of the book for students is the way the text is organized. By covering each genus separately, this book is an ideal study aid for students who want to see close up pictures of colony morphology and biochemical reactions. Although not every organism encountered in the clinical laboratory can be included in a color atlas, the authors do a thorough job of covering all of the clinically important genera.
When covering a particular type of media or biochemical reaction, the authors include a brief explanation of the principle of the test or media.
The accompanying photographs depict positive and negative reactions; these photos are clear and feature easy-to-distinguish reactions.
However, some of the photographs of colony morphology can be difficult to visualize. For example, some bacteria with small colonies that are opaque or light gray can be hard to distinguish on the agar surface.
It would have been beneficial if the authors had included magnified images to attempt to visualize some of the finer details of individual colony-forming units. Also, it was sometimes difficult to visualize zones of inhibition in certain photographs of susceptibility-testing photographs. Another key feature of this text is its incorporation of tables of growth characteristics, or positive biochemical reactions for commonly used tests, which help the laboratory professional distinguish between related genera eg, positive urease reactions among Enterobacteriaceae.
Photographs of positive biochemical reactions often are found later within the chapters that are referenced in the tables. The two new chapters ie, 38 and 39 are placed at the end of the book. Chapter 38 covers antimicrobial susceptibility testing AST. The authors discuss the performance of AST; however, much of the chapter relates to how certain methodologies can help the laboratorian detect resistant phenotypes of clinically important species related to infection control activities eg, use of the modified Hodge test for carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae or use of the D test for inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus specimens.
It remains an open question whether for every bacterial lineage, SNP calling across the whole genome will always prove more informative than probing variation in the highly dynamic repetitive regions sampled by existing typing methods.
The adoption of single-molecule long-read approaches such as that offered by Pacific Biosciences may also help wean us off a dependence on SNPs and reveal more large-scale genomic changes [ 6 ]. Although billed as a one-size-fits-all approach, the comparability and reliability of draft genome analyses remain critically dependent on the sequencing technology and analytical pipelines that are used; a draft genome sequenced today in Europe on one platform may not be easily compared with a draft genome sequenced half a world away on a different instrument in a few years time.
And how easy will it be to redeploy staff in heavily unionized public health laboratories employed to use traditional approaches and re-equip them for the era of whole-genome sequencing?
Another important lesson comes from the deliberate release of anthrax into the US postal system in and the investigation that followed. Solving this case relied primarily on detection of rare colonial morphotypes in culture; genome sequencing had only a subsidiary role [ 7 ].
Crucially, this incident highlights the potential for apparently clonal bacterial cultures to contain mixtures of closely related but distinct genotypes.
Imagine the following scenario. Patients A and B both carry an identical mixed population of genotypes X and Y.
From patient A's sample, you pick a single colony representing genotype X, whereas from patient B you propagate a colony from the Y genotype. In such a situation, you might draw erroneous conclusions as to the relationship between the two infections and chains of transmission between these and other patients. This also highlights the problem that up until now genomic epidemiology has relied on isolation of organisms in pure culture.
Towards a culture-independent approach Can we progress to a culture-independent approach? Can we apply high-throughput sequencing not just to epidemiology, but also to the detection, and even discovery, of microbial pathogens?
The answer is a qualified yes, with four approaches jostling for our attention. Firstly, high-throughput sequencing has already breathed new life into well-established community-profiling approaches that exploit amplification of molecular bar codes, such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences [ 8 ]. This is delivering ever more detailed surveys of the various human- and animal-associated microbiomes. However, such techniques often fail to distinguish pathogenic species or strains from their closest non-pathogenic relatives such as Shigella from E.
Secondly, we can use metagenomics for diagnostic purposes. This approach involves extracting and sequencing all the DNA from a sample.
Clinical specimens will contain variable amounts of human DNA, which may create genetic privacy issues. Human DNA may also swamp the microbial DNA, although with extremely high depth of coverage, sufficient microbial DNA sequences could, at least theoretically, be recovered to reconstruct genomes.
However, using current sequencing technologies, metagenomics is still a long way from providing genome-scale information for each member of a microbial community equivalent to that obtained from microorganisms isolated in pure culture.
For this approach to come of age, we need a sequencing platform that combines speed and cost-effectiveness with very long read lengths and extremely high throughput - a plausible, but not certain, prospect for the coming decade.