Manufacturing facilities design and material handling pdf

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Manufacturing Facilities Design And Material Handling Pdf

Manufacturing. Facilities Design and. Material Handling. FIFTH EDITION. Matthew P. Stephens. Fred E. Meyers. Purdue University Press. West Lafayette. Thank you very much for reading manufacturing facilities design and material handling 3rd edition. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look. Thank you for reading manufacturing facilities design and material handling 3rd edition. As you may know, people have look numerous times for their chosen.

Stephens Fred E. Meyers Purdue University Press West Lafayette, Indiana Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Unless otherwise stated, all figures and tables belong to the authors. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. This book was previously published by: Pearson Education, Inc.

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You can download our homework help app on iOS or Android to access solutions manuals on your mobile device. Es can improve methods, requiring a new time standard.

Cost reduction programs can require new standards. Once a reason for studying a job has been determined, which person do you time-study?

The best answer is two or three, but those people you do not want to time study are: 1. The fastest person on the job. The other employees may think you are going to require them to keep up.

The slowest person on the job. No matter how you rate the job and no matter how good the time standard is, the employees will wonder how you came up with that standard. Employees with negative attitudes that will affect their performance while being studied.

If you can sidestep a potential problem, you should. Now that the job has been identified, collect information for the purpose of understanding what must be accomplished.

These are units of work that are indivisible. Time study elements should be as small as possible, but not less than. The element should be as descriptive as possible. Principles of Elemental Breakdown 1. It is better to have too many elements than too few. Elements should be as short as possible, but not less than.

Elements that end in sound are easier to time. Constant elements should be segregated from variable elements. Separate the machine-controlled from the operator-controlled elements.

Natural breaking points are best. The element description should describe the complete job. Foreign elements should be listed in the order of occurrence. The reasons for breaking down a job into elements are as follows: 1. It makes the job easier to describe. Different parts of the job have different tempos. Breaking down the job into elements allows for moving a part of the job. Standard data can be more accurate and more universally applied.

Do the actual time study: This is the main part of the stopwatch time study. Average time: Average time is the result of dividing total time by the number of cycles. Percent R: Percent rating refers to our opinion of how fast the operator was performing.

Normal time: is defined as the amount of time a normal operator working at a comfortable pace would take to produce a part. Examples: Normal Time Normal Time 1. The accuracy of time study depends on the number of cycles timed. As a rule of thumb, 20 to 25 observations should provide sufficient accuracy for our purposes. Percent rating is the technologists opinion of the operators performance, and is the most challenging aspect of time study.

Apply allowances Allowances are added to a time study to make the time standard practical. Three numbers are required to communicate a time standard: 1. Decimal minutes 2. Hours per unit 3. Pieces per hour Standard minutes, dividing by 60 minutes per hour equals hours per unit. Rating an operator includes four factors: 1 skill, 2 consistency, 3 working conditions, and 4 effort which is most important. Types of Allowances Allowances fall into three categories: 1.

Personal 2.

Fatigue 3. Delay Personal allowance. Personal allowance is that time an employee is allowed for personal activities such as 1. Talking to friends about nonwork subjects 2.

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Going to the bathroom 3. Getting a drink 4. Any other operator-controlled reason for not working Fatigue allowance.

Fatigue allowance is the time an employee is allowed for recuperation from fatigue. Fatigue allowance time is given to employees in the form of work breaks, commonly known as coffee breaks. Delay allowances. Delay allowances are called unavoidable because they are out of the operators control. Examples include: 1. Waiting for instructions or assignments 2. Waiting for material or material handling equipment 3.

Machine breakdown or maintenance 4. Instructing others training new employees 5. Attending meetings, if authorized 6. Waiting for setup.

Injury or assisting with first aid 8. Union work 9.

Reworking quality problems not operators fault Nonstandard workwrong machine or other problem Sharpening tools New jobs that have not been time-studied yet Work Sampling Work sampling is the same scientific process used in Neilson ratings, Gallup polls, attitude surveys, and federal unemployment statistics.

We observe people working and draw conclusions. The industrial engineer samples a department and finds the following statistics: No. Standard Data Standard data are the fastest and cheapest technique of setting time standards. Starting with many previously set time standards, the industrial engineer tries to figure out what causes the time to vary from one job to another on a specific machine or class of machine.

Expert Opinion Time Standards and Historical Data An expert opinion time standard is an estimation of the time required to do a specific job. This estimate is made by a person with a great experience base. Historical data are an accounting approach to expert opinion time standard systems. A record is kept of how much time was used on each job. When a new job comes along, it is compared to a previous job standard.

The stopwatch method of setting time standards is not very useful in manufacturing facilities design because we need to know the required time for each element of work before production begins. For this reason, predetermined time standards or standard data systems are used. Time standards are used for five main purposes in facilities design: 1.

Determining the number of workstations and machines 2. Determining the number of people 3. Determining conveyor line speeds 4.

Balancing assembly and packout lines 5. Chapter 4 Process Design Objectives The concepts and procedures for process design, or how the product and each component are made, and the impact of these decisions on the layout of the facility is discussed in this chapter. The process engineer or designer determines how the product and all its components will be made.

The information includes the following: 1. The sequence of operations to manufacture every make part 2. The machinery, equipment, tools, fixtures, and so on 3. The sequence of operations in assembly and packout 4. The time standard for each element of work 5. The conveyor speed for cells, paint, assembly and packout lines 6. The balance of the work loads of assembly and packout lines 7. The development of a workstation drawing and layout for each operation Process design can be divided into two broad categories: fabrication is initially planned on a route sheet and assembly and packout which use the techniques of assembly charts and assembly line balancing.

The form used to describe this routing is called the route sheet. Route Sheets A route or routing sheet is required for each individual fabricated part. It lists the operations required to make that part in the proper sequence and accompanies the material from operation to operation. It includes the part number, part name, quantity to produce, operation number, operation description, machine number, machine name, tooling needed, and time standard.

The route sheet ends with the last operation prior to being assembled with other parts. There are two ways to change the sequence in order to make the flow through the plant smoother: 1. Change the route sheet, if possible 2. Change the physical layout of the machines The Number of Machines Needed This question can be answered when we know: 1. The number of finished units needed per day 2. Which machine runs what parts 3. Divide the time standard decimal minute by the R value.

The resultant number of machines should be in two decimal places. Once all the machine requirements for each operation are determined, we total similar machine requirements and round. A work cell is a collection of equipment required to make a single part or a family of parts with similar characteristics.

This equipment is placed in a circle around an operator or operators. Advantages of work cells: 1. Significantly reduce setup time 2. Eliminate all storage between operations 3. Eliminate most of the moving time between operations 4.

Eliminate delays spent waiting for the next machine 5. Reduce cost 6. Reduce inventory work-in-process reductions 7. Subassembly, welding, painting final assembly, and packout are all functions included in this area of the plant. The Assembly Chart The assembly chart shows the sequence of operations in putting the product together.

Using the exploded drawing and the parts list, the layout designer will diagram the assembly process. The sequence of assembly may have several alternatives. Time standards are required to decide which sequence is best. This process is known as assembly line balancing. Plant Rate and Conveyor Speed Conveyor speed is dependent on the number and units needed per minute, the size of the unit, the space between units, and, sometimes, the hook spacing.

Conveyor belt speed is recorded in feet per minute. Therefore, the size of the part plus the space between parts measured in feet times the number of parts needed in one minute equals feet per minute. Example: Charcoal grills are in cartons 30 X 30 X 24 inches high. A total of 2, grills are required every day. A total of 4. If the hooks were one foot apart, 4. This conveyor speed also determines the size of your drying oven and baking oven. If parts need 10 minutes at to dry, ten minutes at 6.

Assembly Line Balancing The purpose of the assembly line balancing technique is: 1. To equalize the work load among the assemblers 2. To identify the bottleneck operation 3. To establish the speed of the assembly line 4.

To determine the number of workstations 5. To determine the labor cost of assembly and packout 6. To establish the percentage workload of each operator 7.

To assist in plant layout 8. Chapter 5 Flow Analysis Techniques Objectives Several flow analysis techniques including, string diagram, from-to chart, process chart, operations chart, and multi-column chart are discussed in this chapter.

Flow analysis is the heart of plant layout and the beginning of the material handling plan. Step 2. Grasp 5. Publish the time standard. They divided work into 17 work elements known as therbligs: Rest to overcome fatigue Stopwatch Time Study Stopwatch time study is the method that most manufacturing employees think of when talking about time standards. Apply allowances. Release load Step 9. Time study is defined as the process of determining the time required by a skilled. Transport empty 2.

Step 5. Do the actual time study. Inspect Select the job to study. Step 4. Plan Disassemble The element should be as descriptive as possible. New products can be added. Elements should be as short as possible. If you can sidestep a potential problem.

Es can improve methods. The slowest person on the job. The job could change. It is better to have too many elements than too few. Separate the machine-controlled from the operator-controlled elements. The fastest person on the job. Time study elements should be as small as possible. Once a reason for studying a job has been determined. Cost reduction programs can require new standards. New jobs may have been added to the plant.

The other employees may think you are going to require them to keep up. Employees with negative attitudes that will affect their performance while being studied. Principles of Elemental Breakdown 1. Elements that end in sound are easier to time. Unions can question time standards and request a restudy. Natural breaking points are best.

PDF Manufacturing Facilities Design & Material Handling United States…

These are units of work that are indivisible. The best answer is two or three. Now that the job has been identified. Request for time study can come from every direction: Constant elements should be segregated from variable elements. No matter how you rate the job and no matter how good the time standard is. Breaking down the job into elements allows for moving a part of the job. Do the actual time study: This is the main part of the stopwatch time study.

The reasons for breaking down a job into elements are as follows: It makes the job easier to describe. Foreign elements should be listed in the order of occurrence. Different parts of the job have different tempos. The element description should describe the complete job.

Standard data can be more accurate and more universally applied. Average time: Average time is the result of dividing total time by the number of cycles.

Normal Time Normal Time 1. The total refers to the total time of the appropriate cycles timed. As a rule of thumb. Normal time: The accuracy of time study depends on the number of cycles timed. Percent R: Percent rating refers to our opinion of how fast the operator was performing. Personal allowance is that time an employee is allowed for personal activities such as 1. Pieces per hour Standard minutes. Talking to friends about nonwork subjects 2.

Apply allowances Hours per unit 3. Personal 2. Any other operator-controlled reason for not working. Types of Allowances Allowances fall into three categories: Rating an operator includes four factors: Going to the bathroom 3. Three numbers are required to communicate a time standard: Fatigue 3. Getting a drink 4. Delay Personal allowance. Allowances are added to a time study to make the time standard practical.

Decimal minutes 2. Fatigue allowance is the time an employee is allowed for recuperation from fatigue. Examples include: Attending meetings. Fatigue allowance. Gallup polls. Instructing others training new employees 5. Machine breakdown or maintenance 4. The industrial engineer samples a department and finds the following statistics: Waiting for setup. Sharpening tools New jobs that have not been time-studied yet Work Sampling Work sampling is the same scientific process used in Neilson ratings.

Waiting for instructions or assignments 2. Injury or assisting with first aid 8. Waiting for material or material handling equipment 3. Fatigue allowance time is given to employees in the form of work breaks. We observe people working and draw conclusions. Union work 9. Nonstandard work—wrong machine or other problem Delay allowances. Standard Data Standard data are the fastest and cheapest technique of setting time standards. Starting with many previously set time standards, the industrial engineer tries to figure out what causes the time to vary from one job to another on a specific machine or class of machine.

Expert Opinion Time Standards and Historical Data An expert opinion time standard is an estimation of the time required to do a specific job. This estimate is made by a person with a great experience base. Historical data are an accounting approach to expert opinion time standard systems. A record is kept of how much time was used on each job. When a new job comes along, it is compared to a previous job standard. The stopwatch method of setting time standards is not very useful in manufacturing facilities design because we need to know the required time for each element of work before production begins.

For this reason, predetermined time standards or standard data systems are used. Time standards are used for five main purposes in facilities design: Determining the number of workstations and machines 2. Determining the number of people 3. Determining conveyor line speeds 4. Balancing assembly and packout lines 5. Loading work cells. Chapter 4 Process Design Objectives The concepts and procedures for process design, or how the product and each component are made, and the impact of these decisions on the layout of the facility is discussed in this chapter.

The process engineer or designer determines how the product and all its components will be made. The information includes the following: The machinery, equipment, tools, fixtures, and so on 3. The sequence of operations in assembly and packout 4. The time standard for each element of work 5. The conveyor speed for cells, paint, assembly and packout lines 6. The balance of the work loads of assembly and packout lines 7. The development of a workstation drawing and layout for each operation Process design can be divided into two broad categories: The form used to describe this routing is called the route sheet.

Route Sheets A route or routing sheet is required for each individual fabricated part. It lists the operations required to make that part in the proper sequence and accompanies the material from operation to operation. The route sheet ends with the last operation prior to being assembled with other parts. The number of finished units needed per day 2. It includes the part number. The time standard for each operation Example: To build 2.

Divide the time standard decimal minute by the R value. Which machine runs what parts 3. Once all the machine requirements for each operation are determined. There are two ways to change the sequence in order to make the flow through the plant smoother: Change the route sheet. The resultant number of machines should be in two decimal places.

Change the physical layout of the machines The Number of Machines Needed This question can be answered when we know: The sequence of assembly may have several alternatives. Eliminate all storage between operations 3. Reduce inventory work-in-process reductions 7. Using the exploded drawing and the parts list. Reduce cost 6. Eliminate most of the moving time between operations 4. A work cell is a collection of equipment required to make a single part or a family of parts with similar characteristics.

This equipment is placed in a circle around an operator or operators. Significantly reduce setup time 2. Advantages of work cells: The Assembly Chart The assembly chart shows the sequence of operations in putting the product together. This process is known as assembly line balancing. Time standards are required to decide which sequence is best.

Eliminate delays spent waiting for the next machine 5. Conveyor belt speed is recorded in feet per minute. Charcoal grills are in cartons 30 X 30 X 24 inches high. We are going to paint the following parts on one overhead conveyor system: A total of 2. Plant Rate and Conveyor Speed Conveyor speed is dependent on the number and units needed per minute. Assembly Line Balancing The purpose of the assembly line balancing technique is: If the hooks were one foot apart.

To establish the speed of the assembly line 4. To assist in plant layout 8. To establish the percentage workload of each operator 7. To determine the number of workstations 5. This conveyor speed also determines the size of your drying oven and baking oven.

To determine the labor cost of assembly and packout 6. A total of 4. To equalize the work load among the assemblers 2. To identify the bottleneck operation 3. To reduce production cost. Material flow will be much smoother in product-oriented flow plans 2. Less floor space is required for all the above reasons. Flow analysis is the heart of plant layout and the beginning of the material handling plan.

Users and makers of parts can see and talk to each other 3. This layout eliminates excessive handling of materials 5.

The flow of a part is the path that the part takes while moving through the plant. One concern with the product-oriented layout is the restriction of the machine capacity. Quality problems are easier to identify and quicker to fix 6. This layout provides the foundation for continuous improvement The following list summarizes the differences between the material flow in a process-oriented layout and a product-oriented layout: The purpose is to minimize 1 distance traveled.

There is less work-in-process inventory 4. Product-oriented vs. Advantages of product-oriented flow are: There is less confusion about which process sequence to use 4.

Material handling

The distance material has to travel will be much shorter. There is simplified coordination and production scheduling 2. A multi-column process chart 3. A string diagram 2. A from-to chart 4. A process chart String Diagram Circles represent equipment and the line between circles will indicate flow. Routing for Five Parts Part No. Multi-Column Process Chart Using the same routing information used in the string diagram for our five parts.

From-To Chart The from-to chart is a quantitative technique and is the most exact technique of the three. The quantity and weight for each part is established. How many were moved at a time. Can I change the routing to reduce distances traveled?

The process chart symbols 11 Distance in feet: Can I justify production aids to increase effectiveness? Process chart should invoke these questions: How many pieces are in a container e.

How many pieces are there per storage unit. Can I automate this step? Can I combine this step with another one? The summary is used only for the proposed solution 6 Analysis: A description of what happens in each step 9 Method: Can I eliminate this step? How much does this part cost to produce? Get in the documentation habit! How many pieces per hour or frequency of inspection. Can I move workstations closer together?

Process Chart A process chart is produced for every fabricated part. The pieces per hour would be recorded here. It is an aid: Computer-Aided Flow Design and Analysis The use of this technology allows the user to consider and evaluate many configurations without the expense of physically rearranging the facility to achieve an optimum level of efficiency in material flow.

It shows the raw material. The operations chart uses only one symbol—the circle or operations symbol. Line thickness indicates frequency. The operations chart 3. The flow diagram 2. The flow process chart Flow Diagrams The flow diagrams show the path traveled by each part from receiving to stores. Critical paths. The flow diagram will point out problems with such factors as cross traffic.

The software produces actual path diagrams showing how materials travel among various activity centers. Flow Process Chart The flow process chart combines the operations chart with the process chart. It helps with the analysis of the relationship among all activity centers. The techniques in this chapter will help us to establish the optimum placement of everything that needs space and include: In addition to manufacturing flow.

The worksheet 3. The dimensionless block diagram 4. The activity relationship diagram 2. Follow the rule-of thumb: Step-by-step procedure for developing an activity relationship diagram: Reason codes can be for clarification Reason Code 1 2 3 and so on Reason For better flow All material moves between these two departments People movement and so on Determining the Relationship Code Do not overstate the relationship between the work centers.

Establishing these relationship codes requires an understanding of all the 3. Starting with line 1. List all departments in a vertical column on the left-hand side of the form 2.

Starting with receiving. Each activity center is represented by one square. Make six columns to the right of the activity column and title these six columns. Taking one square at a time. Taking one activity at a time. Cut up a sheet of paper into about 2-inch 3 2-inch squares. List all the activities down the left-hand side of a sheet of paper. Place an activity number in the center of each square.

Arrange the templates so as to satisfy as many activity codes as possible. Operators space and access to equipment 5. The following information must be included in any workstation design: Chapter 7 Ergonomics and Workstation Design Space Requirements Objectives In this chapter the basic concepts of ergonomics as it relates to workstation design are discussed. It is the study of workplace design and the integration of workers with their environment.

Outgoing material 4. Considerations for operator space needs are introduced. Fixture and tools 7. Scale of drawing. Location of waste and rejects 6. Incoming materials materials packaging and quantity must be considered 3. Efficiency is using the job right.

These principles enable the workstation designer to achieve these goals. Principle 1: Hand Motions 1. Eliminate as many hand motions as possible. Combine motions together to eliminate other motions. Make motions as short as possible, discourage leaning excessive reaching 4.

Reduce the force required as much as possible. Keep both hands equally busy. Use mirror image moves. Do not use the hand as a holding device. Locate frequently used tools and materials closer to the point of use. Principle 2: Basic Motion Types Ballistic motions are fast motions created by putting one set of muscles in motion and not trying to stop those motions by using other muscles. Ballistic motions should be encouraged. Controlled or restricted motions are the opposite of ballistic motions and require more control especially at the end of the motion.

They should be eliminated when possible—they are costly, fatiguing, and unsafe. Continuous motions are curved motions and are more natural than straight-line motions. Principle 3: Location of Parts and Tools 1. Have a fixed location for everything. Place everything as close to the point of use as possible. Principle 4: Fixtures and jigs are designed to hold parts. Foot-operated control devices can be designed to activate equipment.

Conveyors or powered round tables can move parts. Fixtures can be electric, air, hydraulic, and manually activated. Principle 5: Use Gravity Gravity is free power.

Use it! Gravity can move parts closer to the operator by putting an incline in the bottom of parts hoppers.

Gravity can also be used to remove finished parts from the workstation by using chutes or slides. Principle 6: Operator Safety and Health Considerations Keep safety hazards in mind and anticipate emergency action requirements while designing the workstation. Design the workstation to eliminate straining the neck to look at things, to eliminate stooping or bending, to eliminate turning sideways or turning around, and to eliminate excessive reaches and moves.

Adequate lighting may not be available in the normal lighting of a manufacturing department, so additional lighting should be added—much like a desk lamp. Operator space should be 3 3 3 feet, which is normal unless the workstation is wider.

Xstations Square Feet Strip shear 12 X 8. Chapter 8 Auxiliary Services Requirement Space Objectives In this chapter the need for the auxiliary or support services in a manufacturing facility is introduced and space determinations for these departments are discussed. Manufacturing departments need support services, and these services need space. Receiving and shipping 2. Storage 3. Warehousing 4. Maintenance and tool room 5. The receiving department is the start of the material flow, whereas the shipping department is the end of the material flow.

Common equipment 2. Common personnel 3. Improved space utilization 4. Reduced facility cost. The disadvantages of centralized shipping and receiving are space congestion and material flow.

It would be a costly mistake to ship out some of the newly received parts. Multiple receiving locations is also a possibility. This is known as less than truck load quantities LTL. The Functions of a Receiving Department The functions of a receiving department are: To assist in locating a trailer at the receiving dock door 2. To assist in the unloading of the material 3. To record the receipt of the number of containers 4.

To open, separate, inspect, and count the material being received 5. To develop an overage, shortage, or damage reports as needed 6. To develop a receiving report 7. To send material to raw material stores or straight to production if needed.

Record receipt. When material is unloaded, it is checked in on a log. This log is often called a Bates log. Damage suffered in shipment and quality problems are also reported on this form. Receiving reports. The receiving report is the notice to the rest of our company that a product has been received and contains the following information: Send to stores or production.

A significant portion of the problems associated with these manual operations of identification, counting, sorting, routing, and inventory management, and the resulting human errors can be alleviated through the use of automatic identification and data capture AIDC technologies. Spotting trailers 6. Facilities Required for Receiving Departments Dock doors.

Creating bills of lading. Space Requirements for the Receiving Department 1 Visualization of the receiving job based on the number of finished products produced per day and the weight of those units.

Packaging finished goods for shipping 2. Outside areas. It is based on the following data: Collecting orders for shipping stage 5. Roadways are 11 feet one way or 22 feet for two-way traffic. Usually square feet per clerk are necessary. Space considerations should be given to the following: Bates logs. Trailer parking alone can take up 65 feet out from the plant wall.

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