Kamusi ya kiswahili sanifu pdf

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Lexikos 24 (AFRILEX-reeks/series ): Taasisi ya Taaluma za Kiswahili (TATAKI). Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu. Third Edition. , xvi + pp. KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI SANIFU IN TEST: A COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING DICTIONARIES. AND FOR RETRIEVING LEXICAL DATA. By: Oxford University Press ISBN: 9. Format: x mm. Extent: pages. Binding: Thread sewn. Year:

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Kamusi Ya Kiswahili Sanifu Pdf

TUKI, KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI-KIINGEREZA =: TUKI,. SWAHILI-ENGLISH DICTIONARY BY TUKI PDF. So, even you need responsibility from the firm, you might. Kamusi Ya Karne Ya 21 android app is a digital Swahili dictionary of Longhorn Publishers Limited. The product is suitable for use by primary school pupils. Kamusi Kuu Ya Kiswahili android application is a unique digital product of Longhorn Publishers Limited in partnership with BAKITA. The application has been.

Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu. Third Edition. ISBN Nairobi: Oxford University Press. Price: Kshs. A monolingual dictionary is compiled to cater for the speakers of a particular language. The need for this kind of dictionary emanates from the wider use of the language concerned and introduction of new words into that language which may give problem to the speakers. The importance of a dictionary also increases when the language is rendered into writing with different texts expressing various fields of knowledge through it. This scenario may confuse several speakers of that language who may have inadequate vocabulary to enable them understand the meaning of words in different texts. This is the scenario which encountered the Kiswahili speakers when the Kiswahili-Kiswahili dictionary was compiled by Fredrick Johnson By it was realized that Johnson's dictionary had some inadequacies because it could not cope with the faster development of Kiswahili. A decade later, the TUKI also faced challenges of embracing the new developments in Kiswahili, hence a need for another dictionary to cater for these challenges arose. Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu henceforth KKS third edition is a product of up-to-date linguistic research done by several Kiswahili scholars from diversified fields in Kiswahili scholarship. These scholars as recommended by Cowie have carefully synchronized pedagogical consideration with linguistic factors in the design of KKS.

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Kiswahili was the language of choice for the new crop of African political leaders to push for African nationalism and the African right to self- determination and independence. By the early s Kiswahili had became symbolic of the African identity while assuming the all important political role of fostering national consciousness. At independence in the s, unlike most African countries south of the Sahara who declared their imperial language as the national language, most East African countries chose Kiswahili.

Tanganyika attained her independence in and in merged with Zanzibar, later taking the name Tanzania.

Uganda got her Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www. Post-Colonial Era Military Terms On attainment of political freedom and independence, African states put in place mechanisms and institutions guarantee their national security and protect territorial sovereignty. To achieve this arduous task, they set up police and national defence forces. Owing to the low literacy levels of the citizens, recruitment to the forces was mainly based on personal interest and physical fitness.

Consequently, for East African countries the medium of military instruction and command in the disciplined forces was mainly a form pidgin Kiswahili consisting of lexicon borrowed from local vernacular languages and English. This partly explains why Kiswahili has remained the working language of the forces in the East African region. For instance, in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, Kiswahili is the de facto language of command in the disciplined forces Mazrui and Mazrui 7.

Most military operations and activities are either conducted in Kiswahili or some form of slang Kiswahili lased with military jargon as illustrated in However, contrary to the anticipated peace and stability most post-colonial era African countries have been visited by continued escalating internal conflicts, insecurity, coup de tats with the attendant loss of millions of lives, refugee crises, human misery, wanton destruction of property and proliferation of arms.

This has posed a myriad of challenges to the nation states. With the exception of Tanzania, this narrative describes most countries in the East African region. The situation in postcolonial Africa was further complicated by the Cold War. However, rivalry between them resulted in mutual suspicions, heightened tensions and a series of international incidents that brought the world to the brink of disaster.

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It dominated international affairs for decades with crises as the Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam, Hungary and the Berlin Wall being associated with it. The most alarming issue associated with the Cold War was the arms race and the ensuing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The build-up of arms was a key characteristic of the Cold War. Military terms such as outlined in 17 characterised Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.

Considering the environment in which they were coined — short deadlines owing to the perishable nature of news - most of them are either adaptations from foreign languages, calques or both. Moreover, a close scrutiny of the terms reveals the urgent need for harmonization and standardization in order to facilitate Kiswahili technical communication in the military sciences.

Improvements in communication technologies and the speedy spread of information were critical to the collapse of the Iron Curtain that separated the two blocs.

The more people knew about each other in the two blocs, the more difficult it became to sow seeds of discord. Through modern communication, nations learnt that it was better to do business with each other than to hate each other.

More than ever before, citizens could easily learn what was happening in other countries, and understood that they did not have to live the way they were living. Suspicions eased and in consequence, the Iron Curtain fell. Military Terminology in the Age of Globalization Globalization is complex and multifaceted or differentiated social phenomenon. Subsequently, it renders itself to several interpretations depending on the context and on the person who is talking about.

It is neither a new phenomenon nor is it easy to define in military terms. It is the ongoing process of greater interdependence among countries and their citizens.

It has political, technological and cultural, as well as economic dimensions Giddens, Steger defines globalization as a social process characterized by the existence of global economic, political, cultural, linguistic and environmental interconnections and flows that make the many of the currently existing borders and boundaries irrelevant.

This process has effects on human wellbeing including health and personal safety , on the environment, on culture including ideas, religion, and political systems , and on economic development and prosperity of societies across the world www. According to Guy Brainbant the process of globalisation not only includes opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalisation of financial markets, growing importance of Multinational Corporations MNCs , population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas but also infections, diseases and pollution.

In nutshell, globalization is about the growing of worldwide interconnectedness, relations and networks between human communities, mutual exchange of technology and knowledge, an increase in the intensity of these, and a general acceleration of all these phenomena.

Put differently, it is also characterised by faster and more reliable means of transportation and communication, which have facilitated greater inter-country movement of capital, human traffic and the exchange of larger volumes of information and goods. Globalization has the capacity to create new vulnerabilities and tensions as well as ease or transform old ones.

Correspondingly, the seemingly peaceful trends can cause violence with little or no strategic warning. The advances in communication, transportation, and information technologies that have accelerated the pace of globalization are also at the disposal of terrorists, money launderers and international cyber criminals.

They are reflected in all social domains ranging from the cultural through the economic, the political, the legal, the military and the environmental. The resultant challenges are numerous and immense. It is in this regard that we now turn our attention to the relationship between globalization and language. Culture is basis for globalization while language is the centre of culture. It thus follows that globalization is best understood and determined in cultural terms. In the present day, due to scientific, technological, political and socio-economic developments, Kiswahili absorbs loan words from the globalised languages - especially English and in turn exerts an enormous influence on the vocabularies of other indigenous languages of East Africa.

Military technology evolves at supersonic speeds with superpowers striving to outwit each other. The preponderance of military or war crimes against humanity in the contemporary world is perturbing, to say the least. Internationally, acts of terror motivated by racial, ethnic, ideological and religious intolerance are on an upward trend.

As a result, military terms such as listed in 19 below have found currency in both mainstream as well as social media across the globe. As Alberts aptly observes, word-formation principles for most Bantu and indeed all African languages need to be established. Such a model or knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, patterns and principles is essential for the training of terminologists.

It is with this in mind that we propose an analysis of emerging structural patterns and conceptual metaphors in neologies such as the Kiswahili military terms in In the next subsection we delve briefly into the general sources of military terminology. Sources of Military Terminology From the foregoing it is evident that Kiswahili language has a growing military terminology.

The terminology so far discussed and documented in this paper are from sources within and outside the language.

Kamusi kuu ya kiswahili pdf

This means basic meaning of existing words such as mzinga, sungusungu, kifaru and ndege are expanded to elaborate novel military concepts or hardware. External sources include calques and loans from other local or international languages. Linguists have always held divergent opinions on the most suitable source.

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Conservative language purists prefer internal sources while avant-garde linguists advocate for more liberal ways of language modernization that embrace sources within and outside the language.

However, most of these terminologies are preserved by oral artists in their heads. Except for a few video and tape records, most of this folklore is neither written nor published. In addition, most of these terms are available in the various dialects of Kiswahili.

Kamusi ya Kiswahili sanifu (Book, ) [wm-greece.info]

This calls for research, documentation, evaluation and standardization in order to make them part of Kiswahili technical vocabulary. War and military experiences such as peace keeping missions have not only contributed to the coinage of new terms and the spread of old ones to new geographical frontiers.

For instance, Kenya is presently hosting one of the largest refugee camps in Daadab and Kakuma. The camps hold refugees from nearly all the war torn countries of the region, some of whom had no prior knowledge or understanding of Kiswahili.

Part of the humanitarian assistance given to the refugees includes formal, non formal and informal teaching and learning of Kiswahili.

Peacekeeping missions in Somali and the DRC are composed of troops of diverse nationalities. In addition, war activities attract a lot of media presence and coverage. Some of these reports and documentaries are made in Kiswahili thus contributing the development and dissemination of new terminologies. For Kiswahili, classical poetry remains the most valuable source.

This is partly because most of the classical poems not only cover a wide range of social issues but were also composed in different styles, registers and dialects of Kiswahili. As illustrated earlier in the works of poets such as Muyaka bin Hajj and Fumo Liyongo, poets have contributed immensely to the documentation of terminology that is currently being tapped into for various technical disciplines such as military science, medicine, ICT, Law and Linguistics to name a few.

In the same vein, poetic justice has enabled contemporary poets and popular musicians to coin neologies that have gained currency in various disciplines. There are several of Kiswahili loan words occasioned by global exchanges such as war and trade in ammunition. Words of this nature cannot be rendered otherwise because of their international nature or they represent standard phenomena.

Military terms in international currency include the examples in 20 below: 20 radio redio , radar rada , bomu bomb , atomiki atomic , kemikali chemical , urani uranium , nyuklia nuclear roketi rocket , droni drone. Moreover, considering the secretive nature of military operations such terms are usually fluid, coded, highly perishable and thus short-lived.

As Murray aptly observes members of the armed forces are especially prone to linguistic creativity. This is evident in their use of ephemeral vocabulary associated with specific wars, operations or even battles - terminology for particular weapons, technical jargon and more importantly, the intriguing slang that characterizes every war. Indeed new coinages characterise and are disseminated by the news media such as radio, television, newspapers and the internet with its attendant online resources.

More often than not, such memoirs are authored by gallant and decorated soldiers who revive their war experiences in books or documentaries.

Such publications are to be found in military libraries. Other records take the form of special glossaries of terms associated with a particular war or military operation. On the other hand war museums and national archives are full of artefacts, souvenirs, mementos and publications preserved for the present and future generations. All these collections can benefit empirical studies from diverse disciplines. If today is anything to go by, Kiswahili is spoken by more people globally as a first and second language.

Spatially, it is now found in more places around the world and is used in more contexts to discourse about more things and disciplines than ever before. It is for the latter reason that Kiswahili vocabulary is larger than ever before. With the institutionalisation of Kiswahili as an official and national language in Kenya and Tanzania, deliberate efforts are likely to be geared towards making all important documents available in the two languages.

Such publications will inspire translation across disciplines and genres. Ongoing efforts to modernise Kiswahili are a step in the right direction.

For instance the elaboration of Kiswahili military terminology will go a long way in facilitating technical communication on modern warfare using up to date terminology. Discourses such as news reports, documentaries, joint military operations, missions, training and exchange programs are set to be done without contradictions, grey areas or even ambiguities.

Similarly, activities such as translation and interpretation - especially technical reports, intelligence gathering and sharing will be done effectively. As Algeo aptly noted, words in a language are like leaves. Every year old ones wither and fall away, and every year new ones sprout and thrive. Such is the case of Kiswahili, neologies and coinages will bequeath the language with novel terminology to elaborate new concepts.

However, there are terms that will be unacceptable to the users — they will die off naturally. Others will be embraced and therefore gain currency. As languages absorb large numbers of loan words, other levels — sound, syntax - can be affected as well. These processes are already evident in Kiswahili today. They are likely to be more overt in the near future.

The Way Forward From the preceding arguments it is evident that attempts have been made to use Kiswahili words as technical military terminologies. However, a number of these terminologies have not been satisfactory.

Some are recognizable words which in common speech do not bear the restricted meaning put upon them in the Military spheres. The examples in 21 below serve to illustrate this. When a term is used for a variety of concepts, it is said to lack precision. For such terms there is need to apply qualifying words for the purpose of concept precision.

Wherever possible, new terms should be coined to replace those that are ambiguous, unsystematic, imprecise or opaque. In some instances it has seemed easier to deliberately adapt the English terms into Kiswahili to enhance transparency. Although attempts have been made to use both Kiswahili orthography and pronunciation, challenges still abound thus the need for standardization.

There is quite an extensiveselection of spoken Swahili texts in tbe Archives of Swahili Dialects, which was compiled as a joint effortbetween tbe Institute ofKiswahili Research University of Dar-es-Salaam and tbe Department of Asian andAfrican Studies University of Helsinki in Other words of this nounclass include: mfanyabiashara 73 , mwakilishi 43 , mfanyi 27 6. Also compound forms such as mwanangu, mwanawe, mwanao,babangu, mamangu etc are missing As they can be derived according to the known rules, it isnot selfevident that they should be included But it is difficult to understand such an omissionthat all the weekdays except for Alhamisi and Ijumaa are missing 9.

Verbs are the most difficult group to handle, because each verb may take so manydifferent forms Derived forms also complicate the search, and it is not always clear whetherthe derived forms given in KKS really cover the actual use of each verb. Some of the verbs are in the list because of a different spelling from that given inKKS Common vatiation in such phenomena should also be indicated4.

The acquisition of new lexical data in contextThe system described above allows the retrieval oflexical materials from the corpus in contextBy user-defined means it is possible to retrieve contents in various quantities and includebackground information into the findings, such as the author, page number etc Probably themost useful and convenient unit is the sentence It is possible to matk the findings in the wayone wishes and also to sort the data according to the keyword Such an automatic sorting doesnot, however, bring always satisfactmy results, because many words, patticularly verbs, havemany kinds of prefixes preceding the stem.

A desired result may be obtained either throughpreceding each finding with a keyword in a stem form, or through a progratn which identifiesthe boundary between the stem and prefixes Tests with modem prose material show that KKS covers quite well the normal text found infiction books and newspaper texts.

Due to lirnitations of space, in the following I will give only some exatnplesextracted from different texts These exatnples ate given in context to show how they are usedSource. The wordscaught from I ata za Asumini are somewhat writer-specific and dependent on the subject dealtwith in the book concerned5.

The examples ofmissing words given above give a superficial picture of the whole truth. KKS is not a very difficult case, because its lexicalentries are single words.