IS (): Formed Ends for Tanks and Pressure. Vessels, Part 1: Based on Outside Diameter basis [MED Mechanical Engineering]. IS Formed ends for tanks and pressure vessels, Part 2: Based on inside diameter basis. byBureau of Indian Standards. Publication. IS Formed Ends for Tanks and Pressure Vessels, Part 1: Based on Outside Diameter basis. byBureau of Indian Standards. Publication.
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Please clearly indicate the given name s and family name s of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. The percentage of beta cells was significantly decreased on day 8 and 15 compared to day 1. Maximum projection images of transplanted islets were captured on day 1, 4, 8 and Blood vessels red were visualised after a tail vein injection of Texas Red-conjugated dextran solution.
The arrowhead marks a transplanted islet of which several xy focal planes are merged into a mosaic in ESM Fig. One day after transplantation, These cells were usually single and dispersed throughout the embryonic pancreas Fig.
When multiple pancreases were transplanted, the grafts joined together over time Fig. DsRed volume at 14 days was 6. Blood vessels Bv and islets Isl can be clearly distinguished. Arrowheads mark ductal structures. DsRed volume was significantly increased on day 7 and 14 compared with day 1, and EGFP volume was significantly increased on day 14 compared with day 1. EGFP volume was significantly increased on day 14 compared with day 1. Functional blood vessels are visualized in red, and erythrocytes can be observed moving through them.
MP4 kb Discussion Here we describe a novel intravital imaging model to study mature islet cells and developing pancreatic tissue using an abdominal imaging window. Using fluorescent markers, we longitudinally measured engraftment, expansion, differentiation and vascularisation in transplanted developing pancreatic tissue and mature islets.
Alternative intravital imaging methods have been used to study islet function, survival and vascularisation over time. This reduces options to transplant large amounts of tissue, or tissues with expansion capacity over time. Our model allows the dynamic characterisation of the embryonic pancreas, which undergoes further development and expansion after transplantation under the kidney capsule [ 8 ].
Fetal pancreases are by nature highly proliferative [ 9 ]. The time course of growth and differentiation of embryonic pancreases transplanted under the kidney capsule is very similar to that observed in eutopic pancreatic development [ 10 ].
Sequential intravital imaging shows the process of islet neogenesis, as indicated by the appearance of rounded clusters of fluorescent cells. In the majority of embryonic pancreatic tissue transplants no acinar tissue was observed, as reported previously [ 8 ]. This is probably the reason why the percentage of beta cells in our grafts is relatively high compared with normal pancreatic development.
We were also able to dynamically assess transplanted islet grafts.
Generally, placement of an imaging window did not affect survival or function of islets transplanted under the kidney capsule. Important processes such as engraftment, vascularisation, expansion and differentiation can be studied using this imaging method. The technique can therefore be a valuable tool in beta cell replacement therapy using progenitor cells, islet inflammation and rejection. In conclusion, we have developed a novel method to dynamically image both mature islet cells and developing pancreatic tissue.
Duality of interest The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript. All authors contributed to revision of the article and gave final approval. LvG is responsible for the integrity of the work as a whole.