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Sankar Cdm. Tim Lin. ASME B Jebin Abraham. What is 'Golden mean rectangle'? The knowledge of different building materials, their properties and uses help in achieving economy and efficient use of materials. The cost of materials in the construction of a building ranges from 60 to 70 percent of the total cost.
Some essential building materials are described below. Many new building materials are combinations of these materials or further innovations of these materials.
It is extensively used in general ,building cQnstruction and ornamental carving. It is also used for general building purposes and manufacturing of lime. Harder slates are used fot damp-proofmg and steps of staircases. It is also used for flooring and other decorative works.
It is used in foundations of structures and superstructures also, but not used for ornamental work. I g Laterite - It is normally used for inferior type of stone masonry work. Stone aggregate - Aggregate is a general term applied to all inert materials which when bonded together with cement form concrete.
General properties a A good building stone should be hard, tough, compact grained and unifonn in texture and oolour. Stone should be properly seasoned by exposure to the air before they are put in a structure.
They should be small enough to be lifted and placed by hand. Length should be three times of the height and breadth, and it should not be less than six inches. Maximum height should be one foot. All stones should be wetted before use. Stone masonry types a Random rubble masonry b Coursed random rubble masonry c Square rubble coursed and uncoursed masonry d Ashlar a Random rubble masonry - The stones are hammer dressed on the face, sides and beds to such an extent that the stones will come into close proximity with the neighbouring stones.
Random Rubble Mason! No face stone should '''be narrower or shorte. Square Rubble Masonry Uncoursed Fig.
Ashlar 2. C Terracota A Bricks The manufacturing of bricks involves four distinct operations. They are earth preparation for bricks, moulding, drying and buining. The - normal sizes of bricks available in India are 9" x 4 a Brick properties -- r x 3" and 10" x 5" x : The surface should not be too smooth because mortar will not stick to it.
All bricks should be soaked in water for about one hour before use. B TIles - They can be divided into two classes. Flooring tiles 2.
RooImg tiles 3. Quarry tiles. Glazedearthenwaretiles , 1. Square tile siZes are 15 x 15 ems with 18 mm thickness, and 20 x 20 cms with 20 mm thickness Roofing tiles - There are number of vaqeties. These are generally rectangular in plan. For example Mangalore tiles, Allahabad tiles, flemish tiles and country tiles.
Quarry tiles - These are very dense and possess a good wear resisting property.
They are used for heavy wear or chemical resistance flooring. Glazed earthenware tiles - The top side of the tile should be glazed and the underside should be completely free from glaze so that the tiles may stick well to the surface.
The edges should be free from glaze. These are generally used in finishing floors and walls of kitchens, bathrooms, water closets and.
Terracota - It is a kind of earthenware made from superior clay by burning. Hollow terracota blocks are used as a substitute for stone in ornamental parts.
Porous terracota is a fire resisting material. It mainly consists of three ingredients lime, silica and alumina. Lime 60 to 65 percent and silica 20 to 25 percent. Manufacturing of dment by wet process can be-divided into three stages.. First stage is mixing of raw materials, second stage is burning and third stage is grinding.
There are other varieties of cement apart from portland cement, they are as described below: A Rapid hardening cement - This type of cement attains high strength in early days because of increased lime content in composition and bumingat higher temperature and finer grinding.
This type of cement is used in concrete when earlyhigh strengths are needed either to remove form work quickly or speedy construction or in cold weather conditions to reduce the period of protection against low temperature or to achieve economy for early higher strengths.
B Quick selling cement - This type of special cement starts setting within five minutes of water addition and becomes bard like stone within thirty minutes. This is produced by adding small percentage of aluminium sulphate as an accelerator and also by reducing percentage of gypsum and fine grinding. This type of cement is used where the work has to be completed in a short time. For example cement concreting in static or running water. C White cement - This is a variety of ordinary cement and prepared from such raw materials which are practically free from iron oxide.
It is more costly and used for architectural decoration purposes. I D Pozzalona cement- Pozzalona is a volcanic powder found in thermal plants. It is mixed with cement clinker to prepare cement. This can also be used for internal plastering for economical building construction.
This is used to bond masonry or other structural units. The uses of mortars are as mentioned below: To unite bricks or stones in the construction of brick and stone masonry.
Lime acts as a binding material for preparing mortar when it is to be used in masonry work. Generally lime to sand ratio is Where cement acts as a binding material. The proportion of cement to sand varies from tC' depending upon the desired strength.
Surkhi mortar - It is a mixture of lime, surkhi and water. Here sand is substituted by surkhi for economy and strength. A Plain Cement Concrete - It is a mixture of cement, water and aggregate. It has high compressive strength. It has good workability as it can be moulded into different shapes. It has high durability value and not much affected by atmospheric conditions.
It is a good insulator and has a fairly good fire resistance.
B Reinforced Cement Concrete RCC - In reinforced cement concrete, both concrete and reinforcing metal usually steel are combined to act together as one material and produce a more economical material than either acting alone. A general proportion of mix is for general work. C Presttessed Concrete - This is a modification over RCC in which steel provides high initial compressive stresses in the concrete so that it may resist tensile stresses without cracking.
Prestressed concrete saves upto fifty percent of concrete and quantity of steel is also reduced as high tens.!! D Lime Concrete - It is a mixture of lime, fine and coarse aggregates and water in proportion.
In reinforced brick concrete, steel rods are embedded inrement concrete which take teJlSion whereas compression is. This is cheaper than RCC. TIMBER Timber is that part of wood of a tree which is of sufficient size and can be used for builQing, carpentary and various other construction purposes. Timber is available in different forms. They are: Converted timber, which is sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes. A Properties of good timber Timber should have sufficient weight.
A timber with heavy weight is considered to be sound and strong.