# Fluid mechanics and machinery book pdf

Physical Properties of Fluids; Pressure Distribution in Fluids; Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids; Buoyancy Forces and. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Book (PDF) By C. P. Kothandaraman, R. Rudramoorthy Objective Type Questions Books Collection โ PDF Free Download. This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery.

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๐ฃ๐๐ | This book is written to serve the needs of undergraduate students embarking introductory course in Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. PDF | On Mar 20, , Mohd. Kaleem Khan and others published Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. Book ยท March with 2, Reads. Publisher: Oxford. PDF | On Jan 1, , Ojha and others published Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. Book ยท January with Reads.

Uniform flow PA College of Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Department ME - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the velocity of flow of fluid does not change both in direction and magnitude from point to point in the flowing fluid for any given instant of time, the flow is said to be uniform. State Newtons law of viscosity.

It states that For a steady uniform flow, the shear stress on a fluid element is layer is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity. Define Compressible and incompressible flow Compressible flow The compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point to point i.

Liquids are generally incompressible. Define Rotational and Ir-rotational flow. Rotational flow Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along stream lines and also rotate about their own axis. Ir-rotational flow If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own axis that type of flow is called as ir-rotational flow State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoullis equation a.

Flow is steady; b. Flow is laminar; c. Flow is ir-rotational; d. Flow is incompressible; e. Fluid is ideal. List the instruments works on the basis of Bernoullis equation. Venturi meter; b. Orifice meter; c. Pitot tube. The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum. State Bernoullis equation. In a steady flow of frictionless and incompressible fluid flow system, the total energy per unit weight of flowing fluid remains constant.

What is known as Eulers equation of motion? If the flow is assumed to be ideal viscous force and it is zero then the equation of motion is known as Eulers equation of motion. Mention the range of Reynoldss number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe. If the Reynolds number is less than , the flow is laminar. But if the Reynoldss number is greater than , the flow is turbulent flow. What does Haigen - Poiseuilles equation refers to? The equation refers to the value of loss of head in a pipe of length L due to viscosity in a laminar flow.

What is Hagen Poiseuilles formula? Write the expression for shear stress? Write the relation between Umax and? Give the expression for the coefficient of friction in viscous flow? What are the factors to be determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular pipe?

The factors to be determined are: a. Velocity distribution across the section. Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity. Shear stress distribution. Drop of pressure for a given length. Define kinetic energy correction factor? Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on actual velocity across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on average velocity across the same section.

It is denoted by. E per sec based on Average velocity Define Boundary layer. When a real fluid flow passed a solid boundary, fluid layer is adhered to the solid boundary.

Due to adhesion fluid undergoes retardation thereby developing a small region in the immediate vicinity of the boundary. This region is known as boundary layer. What is mean by boundary layer growth? At subsequent points downstream of the leading edge, the boundary layer region increases because the retarded fluid is further retarded. This is referred as growth of boundary layer. Classification of boundary layer. Laminar boundary layer, b. Transition zone, c. Turbulent boundary layer.

Define Laminar sub Layer In the turbulent boundary layer zone, adjacent to the solid surface of the plate the velocity variation is influenced by viscous effects. Due to very small thickness, the velocity distribution is almost linear. This region is known as laminar sub layer. Define Boundary layer Thickness. It is defined as the distance from the solid boundary measured in y-direction to the point, where the velocity of fluid is approximately equal to 0.

List the various types of boundary layer thickness. Momentum thickness , c. Define displacement thickness.

The displacement thickness is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in flow rate on account of boundary layer formation. Define momentum thickness. The momentum thickness is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of boundary layer formation.

What is meant by energy loss in a pipe? When the fluid flows through a pipe, it loses some energy or head due to frictional resistance and other reasons.

It is called energy loss. Explain the major losses in a pipe. The major energy losses in a pipe is mainly due to the frictional resistance caused by the sheer force between the fluid particles and boundary walls of the pipe and also due to viscosity of the fluid. Explain minor losses in a pipe. The loss of energy or head due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude or direction is called minor losses.

It includes: sudden expansion of the pipe, sudden contraction of the pipe, bend in a pipe, pipe fittings and obstruction in the pipe, etc. What are the factors influencing the frictional loss in pipe flow?

Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is, a. Proportional to v where v varies from 1. Proportional to the density of fluid. Proportional to the area of surface in contact. Independent of pressure. Depend on the nature of the surface in contact.

Define the terms a Hydraulic gradient line [HGL] b Total Energy line [TEL] Hydraulic gradient line: It is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head and datum head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect the reference line.

Define dimensional analysis. Dimensional analysis is a mathematical technique which makes use of the study of dimensions as an aid to solution of several engineering problems. It plays an important role in research work. Write the uses of dimension analysis? It helps in testing the dimensional homogeneity of any equation of fluid motion. It helps in deriving equations expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. It helps in planning model tests and presenting experimental results in a systematic manner.

List the primary and derived quantities.

## Fluid Mechanics and Machinery - 2 Marks - All 5 Units | Fluid Dynamics | Turbine

Primary or Fundamental quantities: The various physical quantities used to describe a given phenomenon can be described by a set of quantities which are independent of each other. These quantities are known as fundamental quantities or primary quantities. Secondary or Derived quantities: All other quantities such as area, volume, velocity, acceleration, energy, power, etc are termed as derived quantities or secondary quantities because they can be expressed by primary quantities.

Write the dimensions for the followings. Define dimensional homogeneity. An equation is said to be dimensionally homogeneous if the dimensions of the terms on its LHS are same as the dimensions of the terms on its RHS.

Mention the methods available for dimensional analysis. Rayleigh method, b. State Buckinghams theorem. Each term is called term. List the repeating variables used in Buckingham theorem. Define model and prototype. The small scale replica of an actual structure or the machine is known as its Model, while the actual structure or machine is called as its Prototype. Mostly models are much smaller than the corresponding prototype.

Write the advantages of model analysis. Model test are quite economical and convenient. Alterations can be continued until most suitable design is obtained. Modification of prototype based on the model results. The information about the performance of prototype can be obtained well in advance. List the types of similarities or similitude used in model analysis.

Geometric similarities, b. Kinematic similarities, c. Dynamic similarities Define geometric similarities It exists between the model and prototype if the ratio of corresponding lengths, dimensions in the model and the prototype are equal.

Such a ratio is known as Scale Ratio. Define kinematic similarities It exists between the model and prototype if the paths of the homogeneous moving particles are geometrically similar and if the ratio of the flow properties is equal. Define dynamic similarities It exists between model and the prototype which are geometrically and kinematic ally similar and if the ratio of all forces acting on the model and prototype are equal. Mention the various forces considered in fluid flow. Inertia force, b.

Viscous force, c. Gravity force, d. Pressure force, e. Surface Tension force, f. Elasticity force Define model law or similarity law. The condition for existence of completely dynamic similarity between a model and its prototype are denoted by equation obtained from dimensionless numbers.

The laws on which the models are designed for dynamic similarity are called Model laws or Laws of Similarity. List the various model laws applied in model analysis. Reynoldss Model Law, b. Froudes Model Law, c. Eulers Model Law, d. Weber Model Law, e. Mach Model Law State Reynoldss model law For the flow, where in addition to inertia force the viscous force is the only other predominant force, the similarity of flow in the model and its prototype can be established, if the Reynoldss number is same for both the systems.

This is known as Reynoldss model law. State Froudes model law When the forces of gravity can be considered to be the only predominant force which controls the motion in addition to the force of inertia, the dynamic similarities of the flow in any two such systems can be established, if the Froude number for both the system is the same. This is known as Froude Model Law. State Eulers model law In a fluid system where supplied pressures are the controlling forces in addition to inertia forces and other forces are either entirely absent or in-significant the Eulers number for both the model and prototype which known as Euler Model Law.

State Webers model law When surface tension effect predominates in addition to inertia force then the dynamic similarity is obtained by equating the Webers number for both model and its prototype, which is called as Weber Model Law.

State Machs model law If in any phenomenon only the forces resulting from elastic compression are significant in addition to inertia forces and all other forces may be neglected, then the dynamic similarity between model and its prototype may be achieved by equating the Machs number for both the systems.

This is known Mach Model Law. Classify the hydraulic models. Define undistorted model An undistorted model is that which is geometrically similar to its prototype, i.

Define distorted model Distorted models are those in which one or more terms of the model are not identical with their counterparts in the prototype. Define Scale effect An effect in fluid flow that results from changing the scale, but not the shape, of a body around which the flow passes. List the advantages of distorted model.

The results in steeper water surface slopes and magnification of wave heights in model can be obtained by providing true vertical structure with accuracy. The model size can be reduced to lower down the cast. Sufficient tractate force can be developed to produce bed movement with a small model. What are fluid machines or Hydraulic machines?

## Fluid Mechanics by S K Mondal

The machines which use the liquid or gas for the transfer of energy from fluid to rotor or from rotor to fluid are known as fluid machines. How are fluid machines classified? Fluid machines are classified into two categories depending upon transfer of energy: a.

Turbines hydraulic energy is converted to mechanical energy and then electrical energy. Pumps electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy and then hydraulic energy. What are called turbines? Uniform and non-uniform flow c. Laminar and Turbulent flow d. Compressible and incompressible flow e.

Rotational and ir-rotational flow f.

One, Two and Three dimensional flow Define Steady and Unsteady flow. Steady flow Fluid flow is said to be steady if at any point in the flowing fluid various characteristics such as velocity, density, pressure, etc do not change with time. Define Uniform and Non-uniform flow. Uniform flow PA College of Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Department ME - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the velocity of flow of fluid does not change both in direction and magnitude from point to point in the flowing fluid for any given instant of time, the flow is said to be uniform.

State Newtons law of viscosity. It states that For a steady uniform flow, the shear stress on a fluid element is layer is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain.

The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity. Define Compressible and incompressible flow Compressible flow The compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point to point i. Liquids are generally incompressible. Define Rotational and Ir-rotational flow. Rotational flow Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along stream lines and also rotate about their own axis.

Ir-rotational flow If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own axis that type of flow is called as ir-rotational flow State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoullis equation a.

Flow is steady; b. Flow is laminar; c. Flow is ir-rotational; d. Flow is incompressible; e. Fluid is ideal. List the instruments works on the basis of Bernoullis equation.

Venturi meter; b. Orifice meter; c. Pitot tube. The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum. State Bernoullis equation. In a steady flow of frictionless and incompressible fluid flow system, the total energy per unit weight of flowing fluid remains constant.

What is known as Eulers equation of motion? If the flow is assumed to be ideal viscous force and it is zero then the equation of motion is known as Eulers equation of motion.

Mention the range of Reynoldss number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe. If the Reynolds number is less than , the flow is laminar. But if the Reynoldss number is greater than , the flow is turbulent flow. What does Haigen - Poiseuilles equation refers to? The equation refers to the value of loss of head in a pipe of length L due to viscosity in a laminar flow.

What is Hagen Poiseuilles formula?

Write the expression for shear stress? Write the relation between Umax and? Give the expression for the coefficient of friction in viscous flow? What are the factors to be determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular pipe? The factors to be determined are: a. Velocity distribution across the section.

Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity.

Shear stress distribution. Drop of pressure for a given length. Define kinetic energy correction factor? Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on actual velocity across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on average velocity across the same section. It is denoted by. E per sec based on Average velocity Define Boundary layer.

When a real fluid flow passed a solid boundary, fluid layer is adhered to the solid boundary. Due to adhesion fluid undergoes retardation thereby developing a small region in the immediate vicinity of the boundary. This region is known as boundary layer.

What is mean by boundary layer growth? At subsequent points downstream of the leading edge, the boundary layer region increases because the retarded fluid is further retarded.

This is referred as growth of boundary layer. Classification of boundary layer. Laminar boundary layer, b. Transition zone, c.

Turbulent boundary layer. Define Laminar sub Layer In the turbulent boundary layer zone, adjacent to the solid surface of the plate the velocity variation is influenced by viscous effects.

Due to very small thickness, the velocity distribution is almost linear. This region is known as laminar sub layer. Define Boundary layer Thickness. It is defined as the distance from the solid boundary measured in y-direction to the point, where the velocity of fluid is approximately equal to 0.

List the various types of boundary layer thickness. Momentum thickness , c. Define displacement thickness. The displacement thickness is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in flow rate on account of boundary layer formation. Define momentum thickness. The momentum thickness is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of boundary layer formation.

What is meant by energy loss in a pipe? When the fluid flows through a pipe, it loses some energy or head due to frictional resistance and other reasons. It is called energy loss. Explain the major losses in a pipe. The major energy losses in a pipe is mainly due to the frictional resistance caused by the sheer force between the fluid particles and boundary walls of the pipe and also due to viscosity of the fluid.

Explain minor losses in a pipe. The loss of energy or head due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude or direction is called minor losses. It includes: sudden expansion of the pipe, sudden contraction of the pipe, bend in a pipe, pipe fittings and obstruction in the pipe, etc. What are the factors influencing the frictional loss in pipe flow? Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is, a.

Proportional to v where v varies from 1. Proportional to the density of fluid. Proportional to the area of surface in contact.

Independent of pressure. Depend on the nature of the surface in contact. Define the terms a Hydraulic gradient line [HGL] b Total Energy line [TEL] Hydraulic gradient line: It is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head and datum head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect the reference line.

Define dimensional analysis. Dimensional analysis is a mathematical technique which makes use of the study of dimensions as an aid to solution of several engineering problems. It plays an important role in research work. Write the uses of dimension analysis? It helps in testing the dimensional homogeneity of any equation of fluid motion.

It helps in deriving equations expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. It helps in planning model tests and presenting experimental results in a systematic manner. List the primary and derived quantities. Primary or Fundamental quantities: The various physical quantities used to describe a given phenomenon can be described by a set of quantities which are independent of each other. These quantities are known as fundamental quantities or primary quantities.

Secondary or Derived quantities: All other quantities such as area, volume, velocity, acceleration, energy, power, etc are termed as derived quantities or secondary quantities because they can be expressed by primary quantities. Write the dimensions for the followings. Define dimensional homogeneity. An equation is said to be dimensionally homogeneous if the dimensions of the terms on its LHS are same as the dimensions of the terms on its RHS.

Mention the methods available for dimensional analysis. Rayleigh method, b. State Buckinghams theorem. Each term is called term. List the repeating variables used in Buckingham theorem. Define model and prototype. The small scale replica of an actual structure or the machine is known as its Model, while the actual structure or machine is called as its Prototype. Mostly models are much smaller than the corresponding prototype. Write the advantages of model analysis.

Model test are quite economical and convenient.

## [PDF] Fluid Mechanics and Machinery by C.P. Kothandaraman, R.Rudramoorthy

Alterations can be continued until most suitable design is obtained. Modification of prototype based on the model results. The information about the performance of prototype can be obtained well in advance. List the types of similarities or similitude used in model analysis. Geometric similarities, b.

Kinematic similarities, c. Dynamic similarities Define geometric similarities It exists between the model and prototype if the ratio of corresponding lengths, dimensions in the model and the prototype are equal. Such a ratio is known as Scale Ratio. Define kinematic similarities It exists between the model and prototype if the paths of the homogeneous moving particles are geometrically similar and if the ratio of the flow properties is equal.

Define dynamic similarities It exists between model and the prototype which are geometrically and kinematic ally similar and if the ratio of all forces acting on the model and prototype are equal. Mention the various forces considered in fluid flow. Inertia force, b. Viscous force, c. Gravity force, d. Pressure force, e. Surface Tension force, f. Elasticity force Define model law or similarity law. The condition for existence of completely dynamic similarity between a model and its prototype are denoted by equation obtained from dimensionless numbers.

The laws on which the models are designed for dynamic similarity are called Model laws or Laws of Similarity. List the various model laws applied in model analysis. Reynoldss Model Law, b. Froudes Model Law, c. Eulers Model Law, d. Weber Model Law, e. Mach Model Law State Reynoldss model law For the flow, where in addition to inertia force the viscous force is the only other predominant force, the similarity of flow in the model and its prototype can be established, if the Reynoldss number is same for both the systems.

This is known as Reynoldss model law. State Froudes model law When the forces of gravity can be considered to be the only predominant force which controls the motion in addition to the force of inertia, the dynamic similarities of the flow in any two such systems can be established, if the Froude number for both the system is the same. This is known as Froude Model Law. State Eulers model law In a fluid system where supplied pressures are the controlling forces in addition to inertia forces and other forces are either entirely absent or in-significant the Eulers number for both the model and prototype which known as Euler Model Law.

State Webers model law When surface tension effect predominates in addition to inertia force then the dynamic similarity is obtained by equating the Webers number for both model and its prototype, which is called as Weber Model Law.

State Machs model law If in any phenomenon only the forces resulting from elastic compression are significant in addition to inertia forces and all other forces may be neglected, then the dynamic similarity between model and its prototype may be achieved by equating the Machs number for both the systems.

This is known Mach Model Law.

## Fluid Mechanics and Machinery - 2 Marks - All 5 Units

Classify the hydraulic models. Define undistorted model An undistorted model is that which is geometrically similar to its prototype, i. Define distorted model Distorted models are those in which one or more terms of the model are not identical with their counterparts in the prototype.

Define Scale effect An effect in fluid flow that results from changing the scale, but not the shape, of a body around which the flow passes. List the advantages of distorted model. The results in steeper water surface slopes and magnification of wave heights in model can be obtained by providing true vertical structure with accuracy.

The model size can be reduced to lower down the cast.