DFSS is a new development from Six Sigma. • It is methodology to enhance new product and service development process. • It provides a more. Companies who had seen the success of Six Sigma for problem solving using DMAIC wanted to apply data driven tools and techniques to the design of new. Benefits and Limitations of DMAIC. • Introduction to Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) . • DMAIC VS DFSS. • Steps in DFSS. • Case Studies. • Deploying DFSS.
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Design for Six Sigma. A Roadmap for Product Development. Kai Yang. Basem El -Haik. McGraw-Hill. New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon. Six Sigma utilizes quality tools in the design process in order to avoid future problems in the product. Each phase of the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) will have a. PDF | On Jan 1, , Kai Yang and others published Design for Six Sigma: Roadmap to product development, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition.
This approach will allow corporate management to understand where they are in the process and to integrate DFSS methodology more fully into the overall business strategy.
Another important aspect of this book is its coverage of DFSS implementation in a broad range of industries including service and manufacturing, plus the use of actual cases throughout.
DFLSS are covered in the context of designing and developing processes, products, services, and systems. The technical examples and strategies provide conceptual depth and definition, helping the reader appreciate the complexity and rigor that can be brought to bear for competitive innovation.
Author Bios Dr. He is also affiliated with the robust design group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
He has published several articles in leading technical journals andmagazines and coauthored two books related to Mahalanobis-Taguchi Strategy and Computer-Based Robust Engineering with Dr. Genichi Taguchi, in addition to holding a U. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. PDF Request permissions. Literature presents many variations of both.
Halliday Although most of these tools are already well known and applied in other contexts, Six Sigma provides a customer focused, well defined methodology supported by a clear set of comprehensive tools for process improvement van Iwaarden et al, More advanced tools such as regression analysis e. This also means Six Sigma may be viewed as a combination of existing tools and techniques available well before Motorola developed this approach van Iwaarden et al, One important aspect to consider when embarking any Six Sigma project is that tools will have to adapt and develop as the project matures.
Often, simple tools are enough to reduce the defects of a complex manufacturing system in the initial stages Raja, Even though tools and techniques vary, it is essential to apply the right tool in the right situation in order to achieve successful results. This perhaps justifies why it is a common practice in the literature to catalogue the main tools within the five phases of the DMAIC approach.
However, there is an absence of standardised decision procedures to choose the most appropriate tools in a specific context Hagemeyer et al. Likewise, as put forward by Brady and Allen , finding literature that provides methods for specific projects and the associated financial results is often difficult because of the confidentiality reasons. Over the years, companies have included numerous tools into the Six Sigma approach to make them more effective and to eliminate possible gaps after its application.
Such toolsets include statistical and analytical tools both from industrial engineering and operations research fields Bunce et al, In this instance, these tools enrich the practical and industrial approach with a stronger theoretical basis to achieve a better equipment and resources utilisation Maciel Junior et al, Chakrabarty and Tan claim that DFSS typically includes innovation tools such as the theory of creative problem solving and axiomatic design which DMAIC does not, although it could.
Although not part of the keyword search, the use of simulation is commonly referenced in the papers but does not consistently appear in the tool categorisation lists. The evolution of computer hardware has enabled the use of powerful simulation packages for the Analyse and Improve stages, as it allows significant savings in the Design of Experiments phase by testing solutions before implementation Gladwin, Simulation has been very successful on its own for the past twenty years but this tool was not seen as complementary to Six Sigma and only few articles addressed the combination of such tool and methodology.
This is no longer the case today, and although still few, some authors such as McCarthy and Stauffer state in their text that Six Sigma has already delivered significant results without the benefit of simulation but agree that simulation could make Six Sigma even more successful in the coming years. Finding 3: The literature provides a wealth variety of tools and techniques which are often classified within the DMAIC approach but with little detail on specific examples of their applications.
Basic tools are often sufficient for the initial improvements of most processes but the simulation techniques open up a new and promising avenue to enhance the merits already achieved by Six Sigma. Issue 1: The variety of tools available sometimes causes confusion as to which tools work best for specific business requirements. In addition, the literature tends to analyse the techniques used to optimise the process performance.
The approach taken in many cases, e. There are many benefits that can be derived from the adoption of Six Sigma.
It could enhance product development cycles and process design, shorting product lead times by reducing the cycle time of the overall manufacturing process. Six Sigma can be used to find and eliminate the root causes of the problem, so reducing the variability in the process in order to prevent defects.
There are also organisational implications.
Indeed Six Sigma methodologies provide guidelines which could help the workers understand how to carry out the job and train them to solve potential problems. As a consequence, they become more aware of the production process thereby improving their morale and reducing the human-related defects Hong et al, With respect to the role of Six Sigma in reducing the defects, it has been demonstrated in several studies that the defect rate per unit DPU is reduced after its implementation in manufacturing systems Kumar et al, For this reason, Six Sigma can be used to build predictive models based on experiences gathered from earlier uncorrected measures to ensure a continuous improvement of the process Johnston et al, In recent years, knowledge management has contributed to facilitate the implementation of Six Sigma and has emerged as a source of competitive advantage within the businesses Gowen III et al, Six Sigma is also recognised as a strategy that drives the cultural change to improve profitability of the company increasing the benefits from savings generated when the defect is detected at a very early stage Antony et al, a.
However, van Iwaarden et al state that the approach to Six Sigma varies between organisations because they integrate different techniques according to their needs, so there might be disagreement regarding the benefits as they depend on the industry and even the country where Six Sigma is applied.
Six Sigma also helps improve the relationships outside and within the organisation Kumar et al, Finding 4: Six Sigma has many benefits and, unsurprisingly, the most frequently cited are the reduction and prevention of defects which affect the quality of both products and processes.
It initially applied in the manufacturing sector but has now spanned over service and financial sectors Aghili, Antony grouped these changes into three generations.
The first generation of Six Sigma was focused on reduction of defects and saw success with Motorola. The third generation onwards is oriented to creating value for the customers and the enterprise itself, and finds its application within companies like Posco and Samsung.
This is more oriented to service and commercial business processes including transactional systems quality, which takes into account delivery times, customer waiting time to receive services, inventory service levels, etc. Although the application of Six Sigma in service sectors is growing, the majority of the publications reviewed discuss the implementation and the problems encountered within the manufacturing sectors.
On the contrary, in the manufacturing sectors where an automatic data collection is used, for example in assembly lines, measuring the impact of the quality control programme is much easier to do.
Furthermore, large organisations tend to initially introduced Six Sigma in their manufacturing facilities. Only after enhancing their knowledge about the tools and techniques to adopt, they gradually spread it to the service operations.
Literature also shows there is a different level of interest shown in the Six Sigma adoption not only in terms of type of operations manufacturing or service but also in terms of company size.
In particular, multinational companies are often reported to have reaped the full benefits of Six Sigma. Caterpillar Haikonen et al, Furthermore, Pantano et al proposed the application of Six Sigma in a cluster of small companies so that they can share their resources and achieve the needed level of inputs as possible solution to overcome the difficulties found in the SMEs.
Finding 5: Six Sigma is very much in use within the manufacturing sector but is growing in the service sector. Lee-Mortimer observed a company wide training to promote Six Sigma as a relevant tactic to combat initial reluctance towards cultural change. He also suggested that reducing the levels in organisational structure may speed up the adoption of Six Sigma culture. Welch believed that it is necessary to make Six Sigma a leadership tool for transformation that should permeate into all levels of businesses.
The effort required is to change the approach to the implementation of Six Sigma projects from merely using a set of tools to the creation of a culture that should be deeply embedded in every employee Antony, Furthermore, in order to facilitate the communication within the organisation and to support the implementation process, Information Technology and state-of-the-art Information Systems infrastructure are fundamental. They continually enable integration of complex tasks in obtaining feasible quality improvement solutions in a short time frame Hsieh et al, It is important to note that Six Sigma does not provide a quick and easy solution to all types of manufacturing problems and the environment in which it is introduced Lee- Mortimer, When combined, these methods obtain the proper needs of the customer, and derive engineering system parameter requirements that increase product and service effectiveness in the eyes of the customer and all other people.
This yields products and services that provide great customer satisfaction and increased market share. In this way, DFSS is closely related to operations research solving the knapsack problem , workflow balancing.
It is a concurrent analyzes directed to manufacturing optimization related to the design. Critics[ edit ] Response surface methodology and other DFSS tools uses statistical often empirical models, and therefore practitioners need to be aware that even the best statistical model is an approximation to reality.
In practice, both the models and the parameter values are unknown, and subject to uncertainty on top of ignorance. Of course, an estimated optimum point need not be optimum in reality, because of the errors of the estimates and of the inadequacies of the model.
Nonetheless, response surface methodology has an effective track-record of helping researchers improve products and services: For example, George Box 's original response-surface modeling enabled chemical engineers to improve a process that had been stuck at a saddle-point for years[ citation needed ].
Both methodologies focus on meeting customer needs and business priorities as the starting-point for analysis.
Back-front systems also are used. This makes 3.