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What is Autonomous Data Warehouse? Watch the video 3: How It Works Self-Driving. Transformations belonging to the same family correspond to different alternatives or different design styles for solving the same problem.
Basic Definitions The underlying model for the proposed transformations is the Relational Model. However, we classify the relational elements relations and attributes into different sets, according to dimensional concepts e.
This classification enables the transformations to perform a more refined treatment of the different situations in DW design. The Sets defined over the Relational Model Relation1 sets: Rel - Set of all the relations any kind of relation.
These are the relations that represent descriptive information about real world subjects. These are the relations that represent relationships or combinations among the elements of a group of dimensions. Usually, they contain attributes that represent measures for the combinations.
These are the crossing relations that have one or more measure attributes. These are the dimension relations that contain a set of attributes that constitute a hierarchy.
These are the relations that have historical information that correspond to information in relation R. These sets verify: Att R — Set of all attributes of relation R. AttM R — Set of measure attributes of relation R.
AttD R — Set of descriptive attributes of relation R. AttC R — Set of derived calculated attributes of relation R. AttJ — Set of sets of attributes that represent a hierarchy. AttK R — Set of sets of attributes that are key in relation R. This is a set of properties that must be satisfied by a relational DW schema for being consistent. They concern: Due to space limitations we present only one of the invariants for the whole set refer to .
If a measure relation has an attribute that also belongs to a dimension relation, then it must have a foreign key relative to this relation.
The transformations We start presenting some example-transformations in order to illustrate their usefulness. Many relations in operational systems do not maintain a temporal notion.
For example, stock relations use to have the current stock data, updating it with each product movement. However, in DWs most relations need to include a temporal element so that they can maintain historical information. For this purpose, there is a transformation called Temporalization that adds an element of time to the set of attributes of a relation.
In operational systems, usually, data is calculated from other data at the moment of the queries, in spite of the complexity of some calculation functions, in order to prevent any kind of redundancy. For example, the product prices expressed in dollars are calculated from the product prices expressed in some other currency and a table containing the dollar values.
In a DW system, sometimes it is convenient to maintain this kind of data calculated, for performance reasons. We have a group of transformations, which name is DD-Adding, that add to a relation an attribute that is derived from others. Figure 3 shows a table containing the whole set of transformations proposed. Transformation Description T1 Identity Given a relation, it generates another that is exactly the same as the source one.
T2 Data Filter Given a relation, it generates another one where only some attributes are preserved. Its goal is to eliminate purely operational attributes. T3 Temporalization It adds an element of time to the set of attributes of a relation. T5 Foreign Key Update A foreign key and its references can be changed in a relation. This is useful when primary keys are modified. T7 Attribute Adding It adds attributes to a dimension relation. It is useful for maintaining more than one version of an attribute in the same tuple.
T8 Hierarchy Roll Up It does the roll up by one of the attributes of a relation following a hierarchy. Besides, it can generate another hierarchy relation with the corresponding grain. T10 Data Array Creation Given a relation that contains a measure attribute and an attribute that represents a pre-determined set of values, it generates a relation with a data array structure.
Vertical Partition or Horizontal Partition can be applied. T13 Minidimension Break off It eliminates a set of attributes from a dimension relation, constructing a new relation with them. T14 New Dimension Crossing It allows materialising a dimension data crossing in a new relation. Figure 3: The transformations We have not addressed the demonstration of the completeness of the set of transformations.
However we believe that the usefulness of this set is supported by the following facts: Figure 4 shows the specification of one of the transformations whole set can be found in . T9 — Aggregate Generation Description: Given a measure relation, the transformation generates another measure relation, where data is summarised or grouped by a given set of attributes. R A1, Specification of transformation T9 2. Consistency Rules and Design Strategies Basing on the Invariants, we define some rules that should be applied always, when a DW schema is being constructed through application of the transformations.
The rules consider the different cases of inconsistencies that can be generated by application of the transformations and state the actions that must be performed to correct them.
The following is one of these rules the rest can be found in : R1 — Foreign key updates R1. The strategies proposed address design problems relative to: We following show part of one of the proposed strategies refer to  for the whole: S1 - Dimension versioning A usual problem DW designers have to face is how to manage dimension versioning.
Letz, C. In: Proc. IDEAS, pp. Yang, J. SAC, Nicosia, Cyprus, pp.
Blaschka, M. In: Mohania, M. DaWaK LNCS, vol. Springer, Heidelberg Google Scholar 8. Eder, J.