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The Easy Draw proportional ruler system of fashion drawing and the accompanying instructional design ideas and produce good quality illustrations is paramount to the fashion. Industry. .. To make your basic fashion template come alive. Basics Fashion Design 02 - Textiles and Fashion - Ebook download as PDF File Examples of drawing techniques. colour. inspirational or commercial textiles. Fashion Illustration for Designers. Uploaded by. Mc Nk. Basics Fashion Design 02 - Textiles and Fashion. Uploaded by. Luis Matta Rios. Book of Fashion Design .
The new essential text for aspiring fashion designers, Fashion Design: The Complete Guide is filled with practical advice at every stage, including help with portfolios, personal promotion and career opportunities.
With an attractive and colourful layout, every chapter also includes interviews, discussion questions, activities and further reading. Table of contents Introduction. Appendix: Index; Acknowledgements; Credits. It's excellent at covering the primary areas of the fashion design industry. First year students have ordered this title independently after being exposed to the title and contents in class.
The chapters and concepts are concise and clearly presented The textbooks produced by AVA are reasonably priced, well structured and of valuable insight relative to the complex fashion industry from experienced individuals. The writing language is easy to read for a novice, and provides a depth of perspective and insight through which seasoned professionals can make new interpretations.
It could easily serve as a textbook in any introduction to fashion design, fashion drawing, pattern design, haute couture design and production, or any related courses. A garment that had seaming, darting and panelling was very desirable, as it would have been expensive to produce and would indicate that the wearer was wealthy enough to afford such a garment.
It is interesting to look to other countries and their traditional handcrafted textiles for inspiration and to note how these techniques can be applied to modern textiles. Hand-crafting textiles in Cambodia. Examples of research boards. Examples of drawing techniques. The next step is to collate the research that you have gathered. This gathering of informative textiles from classic textiles, cultures or other sources of inspiration can be in the form of mood boards or sketchbooks that document the research and create links to form a story that will develop into design ideas.
It is important to then find a way to express your design ideas through drawing, collage, photography, or maybe CAD work. It is wise to also consider the surface you are going to design on: will you start to work on paper initially and then develop into cloth and knit, or will you start to work directly with material? As you design you must understand the basic textile design principles of scale, texture, colour, pattern, repeat, placement and weight. Consider how these principles work within a sample and how these samples work together as ranges, as well as how your designs will result in functional, inspirational or commercial textiles suitable for use within contemporary fashion design and garment construction.
Determining the most appropriate medium to render your designs in is very important, whether its paper, paint, pencils or a software package. Work out what is required and in what time frame. Bear in mind that you might need to learn new skills for the designs you are creating. Always remember to experiment and enjoy the process. The textile sample Collage and 3D rendering Working with different types of papers and building up layers to create textures can be useful for knit and weave ideas.
Try finding unusual textures to play with, but remember to refer back to the function of your fabric. You might try to experiment and mock up a sample in a fabrication similar to the yarn you might eventually use. Example of collage work. The use of the computer can make the design process faster. Colour and scale can be changed more quickly than manually recolouring or rescaling a design. Remember that colours on a computer screen are different from those eventually printed out, as the computer screen works with light and not pigment.
Scanning in original drawings and combining them with other imagery can work well. Avoid using filters and treatments from design packages unless they are used originally otherwise they can look very obvious. The use of photography can be great for capturing ideas quickly. Textures and shapes can be registered in great detail immediately without the need for hours of drawing. With the use of packages such as Photoshop, images can now be successfully translated into designs.
Layers and collages can be built up on screen. This knowledge will allow you to fully explore the design process. Obviously different samples will feature certain principles more than others. For example, you might produce a range of black samples that focus on the application of shiny surfaces to matt-base cloths.
The juxtaposition of surfaces and placement of pattern might be the focal point of these designs rather than colour. Look at the scale of your design within the fabric piece.
Is it very small and repeated or is it enlarged and abstract? You may consider placing a large design with a smaller design for added contrast. Think about how this design will work on the body and how it will work within the pattern pieces of a garment. An enlarged bold design may not have as much impact if the design has to be cut up to be used in a garment with many pattern pieces. Think how you can place a large design within a garment silhouette for the best effect.
Example demonstrating how print scale can work on the body. Liberty print designs by Duncan Cheetham showing an all-over floral pattern top and a chevron print bottom. The chevron design has a direction, a clear top and bottom to the design. Repeats can be very simple or very complicated working across a large area.
The bigger the repeat the harder it is to see on a length of fabric; a small repeat is more obvious. It is important to observe how your design flows across a length. When you repeat your design en masse you might find that you can see where you are clearly repeating the motif.
This might work in a design or it might look rather crude. Also consider if there is a direction to your design.
Is there a top and a bottom? This can look very interesting visually, but remember that this kind of design limits the lie of a fabric, as the pattern pieces will all have to be placed in one direction. If you are working on a computer it is very easy to see how your design will work by cutting and pasting. There are also computer packages that quickly put your design into repeat.
To work out manually whether your designs flow, cut the design in half and place the top part below the bottom to see where you need to fill in gaps. The most obvious placement is a print placed on the front of a t-shirt.
It is interesting to consider how a design can be engineered to work around a garment. Can a seam be moved to allow a design to travel from the front to the back of a garment? Could a placement work around the neck or around an armhole? Can a design fit into a specific pattern piece? If you are working in this way you may have to consider how the engineered design scales up or down according to the size of the garment.
A size 10 garment will have a smaller neck hole than a size You will have to produce a different size design for each dress size for this to really work. If you are working on the computer this is much easier as designs can be scaled quickly and placed within pattern pieces. Clever use of placements might affect the construction of the final garment.
For example, a coloured block could be knitted directly into a garment, which would mean a coloured panel would not need to be cut and sewn in. A weave could incorporate an area of elastic running across it, thereby avoiding darting in the final garment to fit it to the body.
Smocking applied to a fabric can work in a similar way. The textile sample Colour and colourways Weight, texture and surface It is often a good idea to start finding a colour palette that you like and that suits your theme before you begin designing. Finding an image, a photograph or painting where the colours already work together can be a good start or you may just start selecting colours and working them together by eye.
You can work with chips of paper colour, fabric swatches or on the computer. A palette of colours can be any size, but do not over complicate it by using too many colours. Check your balance of colour and tone within the palette. Consider what the colour is going to be used for and in what proportion. Remember a small area of colour looks very different to an expanse of the same colour over a couple of metres of fabric.
When you design consider the various tones and saturations that can be found within one colour. Also experiment with the different textures of a hue. For example, the colour black can be blue-black, warm black, washed-out black, matt black, shiny black, or transparent black. Your palette will change under different lighting conditions natural light at certain times of the day and different forms of electric lighting will all have an effect. When you start to transfer your designs on to or into fabric, think about what weight your textile will be in relation to the design and also in relation to its use in the final garment.
Understanding fabrics and yarns is paramount to this process this will be explored more later on in the book. Consider whether your design would benefit from texture.
Surface interest is very important within textile design, especially in knit, embroidery and embellishment. In knit and weave design the weight of the yarn and size and type of stitch or weave will affect the texture. For printed textiles, surface interest is achieved through printing.
Some printing media will sit on top of the fabric and produce a relief effect, while others might eat away at the surface of the textile through a chemical reaction. The type of embellishment and the yarn or stitch used will produce various textures on embroidered fabrics.
Mechanical and chemical finishing processes can change the texture of a fabric after it has been created. Interesting textiles can be created by experimenting with a mixture of processes, for example, pleating a fabric before you print on to it, or knitting a fabric then boiling it to give a matted texture. This design contains a striking use of placement. The circles on the jacket are placed so they correspond to the circles found on the blouse and shorts beneath.
The circles on the front of the jacket also align with those on the sleeves and cuffs. Prints by Jenny Udale showing a matt print on a shiny fabric. Puff adds surface interest and colours work together.
You will probably only have to produce a small length of fabric or a small range of garments that feature your fabrics. However, when you become a designer in the fashion industry you will have to consider how you sell your work. If you choose to manufacture your textiles you will also have to consider the skills and technology you will need for production and the ethical choices you might make. You must consider how your textiles now work together and form a collection; then to whom you will present the samples and where you will sell them.
Collections of fabric Collections fabrics s When you create a collection of fabrics you must consider how the designs work together and what their common theme is.
Are you creating a collection of similar designs, for example, a range of striped textiles or a variety of designs a stripe, spot and floral that are maybe all rendered by a similar drawing technique? Consider how your range of designs works within a fashion collection: do you have all the different weights and qualities needed for all the garments?
The colour palette is usually common to a range of fabrics, but you can vary the proportion of colour used in each sample within the range. Try hard not to repeat a motif in a collection of designs. For example, you might think each design is very different, that in one design your motif of, say, a leaf is small and lime green and in the next design it is larger and black, but one company may download the first design and another the second, and their designers could then resize and recolour your designs and end up with similar textile designs.
The organic fabrics are digitally printed and include a variety of textures, weights, embroidery and embellishment. Expofil: yarns and fibres. Indigo: textile design including print, knit, embroidery and vintage fabrics. Le cuir Paris: leather, fur and textiles for accessories.
Ideacomo: fabrics for womenswear. Moda In: avant-garde materials for the fashion market. Prato Expo: fabrics for womenswear with a high fashion content and casual menswear. Shirt Avenue: traditional and novelty shirting fabrics.
Textile samples tend to be presented on hangers or simply mounted on light card fixed at the back. It is important that the textile is not stuck down as it needs to be handled, therefore usually only one edge is attached to the mount leaving the fabric sample hanging so the weight and drape can be experienced. Keep the mounting plain and simple so it does not distract attention away from the textile design. It is not normally advisable to present your samples in portfolio plastic sleeves, as the fabrics cannot be easily handled.
The textile sample Fabric fairs 12 Fabric swatches presented alongside fashion drawings clearly show how the textiles will be used within a collection. The fabrics are not fully stuck down, but hang so they can be handled easily. The Premire Vision fabric trade fair. Fabric trade fairs are held biannually in line with the fashion calendar.
The fairs showcase new developments in woven, knitted, printed and embellished fabrics. Premire Vision is the main fabric and colour fair held biannually in Paris. Fabric manufacturers from around the world display their new fabric samples and take orders from designers. Sample lengths of fabrics are made first by the manufacturer and sent out to the designer. From this, garment samples are made and orders are taken.
Based on this, the fabric is ordered and if not enough is ordered by designers, a fabric will not go into production. Indigo, also held in Paris, is a platform for textile designers mainly print designers to show their textile samples.
The samples are shown as collections and are bought by designers for inspiration or by fabric companies and fashion companies to be put into production. Pitti Filati is a biannual yarn fair held in Florence. Here yarn companies display their latest collections of yarns for production and textile designers sell their knitted and woven samples.
The other main yarn fair is Expofil in Paris. If you choose to represent yourself at a fabric fair you must consider the cost of travel, hiring a stand at the exhibition, manning the stand and accommodation while you are there. If an agent takes your work to sell they will take a large cut of the sales of your samples to cover their expenses. Always keep a good record of the samples that you give to an agent.
Number each sample on the back and list the ones that are going, get the agent to confirm and sign the list. Make sure you know what percentage the agent is taking and how long they will take to pay you. In other words, fabrics that use great design and can be sustainable, but can also be forward thinking. We should also consider how traditional crafts, such as block printing, hand crochet and crewel work can be maintained.
These handcrafts give textiles character and individuality, and they can add value to a product as a result of the time and skill needed to create it.
A garment that has been hand stitched and embroidered will never be exactly the same as another garment. Certainly high-end designers are incorporating handcrafted fabrics and finishes into their collections, but these handcraft techniques are difficult for the high street to copy and therefore set them apart.
Consumers, however, are demanding fabrics that can perform well and that can wash and wear well, so maybe combining craft with performance and modern technologies will ensure their survival.
Ethical One reaction to this mass consumption is the rise of sustainable collections. Companies are considering what the impact of their textiles and processes has on the environment. Many are choosing to use fabrics that are made from recycled material, either at fibre or fabric level.
Many fibres come from natural sources and can be reused; some synthetic fibres can also be recycled, for example, polyester can be made from old plastic bottles. Dye companies There has definitely been a trend for organic and fair trade in industries such as food and cosmetics, but the fashion industry has been slower to pick up on the idea. Some may say that fashion is fundamentally about aesthetics, so is there room in fashion for ethics?
It is important that ethical companies integrate functionality, design and quality into their ethical story for their products to be fashionable and desirable. We are downloading our clothing in supermarkets with our weekly food shop.
We are wearing a t-shirt a few times and throwing it away to download the next desirable cheap garment. Fashion has a short shelf life with new collections appearing every six months. If the seasons collections do not sell in the season they go on sale, they are burnt or recycled. Synthetic dyeing is often seen as unethical.
However, natural dyes need fixers that can be harmful to the environment as they build up; also some natural dyes need a large amount of natural material to produce a small amount of dye. As a designer you can choose where you download your textiles or where you have your textiles manufactured.
It may be harder to source sustainable or ethical material and it may make your designs more expensive. You may be competing with cheaper goods from non-certified factories, but ultimately it is your choice. Decide how much you want to be involved with the issues, but educate yourself. The textile sample Fairtrade The term fairtrade is part of the Fairtrade Foundations logo and is used to refer to products that have actually been certified fairtrade.
The Fairtrade Foundation gives this certification after it checks that the growers or workers have been given fair pay and treatment for their contribution to the making of the product.
The working environment in which the products are made is taken into account. Manufacturers have to demonstrate that they provide good conditions for the people involved in the factory. There are basic standards covering workers pay and conditions, as well as issues such as the absolute prohibition of the use of child labour, which must be met in order to qualify for the fairtrade kite mark. Fairtrade is also used to describe products that try to encourage the use of natural and sustainable materials, together with contemporary design to maintain ancient skills and traditional crafts, where regular employment and the development of skills can bring dignity back to people and their communities.
IFOAMs goal is the worldwide adoption of ecologically, socially and economically sound systems that are based on the Principles of Organic Agriculture. The principles aim to protect the land that is being farmed and also those working on it and the communities of which they are a part. Strict regulations define what organic farmers can and cant do, placing strong emphasis on protecting the environment. They use crop rotation to make the soil more fertile.
They cant grow genetically modified crops and can only use as a last resort seven of the hundreds of pesticides available to farmers see Chapter Two: Fibres, for more information on organic cotton production.
The campaign for animal rights gets stronger every year, yet designers continue to show catwalk collections that contain fur. There still seems to be a demand by a certain consumer group for fur in fashion. Designers are now using fur and leather substitutes in experimental ways. Stella McCartney does not use any animal products in her collections; instead she uses canvas and pleather fake leather in her accessories.
There is a lot of research to develop good leather-look fabrics. The Japanese company Kuraray produces Clarino and Sofrina and the company Kolon Fibers produces an ultra-microfibre textile called Rojel. The possibilities of futuristic textiles are positively endless.
Smart materials Interactive clothing incorporates smart materials that respond to changes in the environment or to the human body. Heat, light, pressure, magnetic forces, electricity or heart rate may cause changes to shape, colour, sound or size. It is especially appropriate to textiles, as during the construction process, fibres and yarns can form circuits and communication networks through which information is transferred.
Coating finishes, printing and embroidery can also all be used to conduct information. Clothes could quite possibly interact directly with the environment by opening doors or switching on lights or could communicate with images, light or noise. Fibres are being developed from natural sources to mimic nature, for example, the development of spider silk. Fabrics are also being grown directly from fibres in the same way that skin or bones grow.
Digital technology and computer-aided design is advancing and making the designers job easier. Designing a textile sample using CAD can produce a repeat in many colours far quicker than if done by hand.
Computerised looms can produce metres of fabric in minutes. Obviously manufacturing processes must evolve, but it is important to still understand the craft techniques on which these processes are based. Wildlifeworks produces organic and fairtrade clothing. Fabrics are made fundamentally from fibres. These fibres can be categorised simply as natural or synthetic and each fibre has its own characteristics and qualities.
For example, cotton fibres produce a fabric that is breathable, while wool fibres create a warm cloth, but one that can be sensitive to heat.
The way the fibres are spun and the yarn constructed affects the performance and look of the final fabric. Finishes and treatments can be applied to a textile at fibre, yarn, cloth or final garment stages of production. These finishes can enhance and change the qualities of the textile for fashion. Colour, texture and performance qualities can all be added. Obviously the way the fabric is constructed also gives the fabric a specific quality.
This will be discussed in the next chapter. Companies who manufacture man-made and natural fabrics are considering their impact on the environment with their manufacturing processes. The production of natural fabric may have more impact on the environment than a man-made one if it uses harmful chemicals in its processes; also many man-made fabrics can now be completely recycled.
Fabric characteristics can be integrated into the make-up of man-made fibres reducing the need for chemical and mechanical finishing processes. Bottom row from left to right : foil-printed linen, linen; denim, cotton shirting; bamboo, jute hessian. Natural fibres are derived from organic sources. These can be divided into plant sources composed of cellulose , or animal sources, which are composed of protein.
Cellulose Cellulose is made of carbohydrate and forms the main part of plant cell walls. It can be extracted from a variety of plant forms to make fibres suitable for textile production. Here we are looking at fabrics that are most suitable for the production of garments; they must be soft enough to wear and not break up when worn or washed. It has soft, fluffy characteristics and grows around the seed of the cotton plant. These fibres are harvested from the plant, processed and then spun into cotton yarn.
Cotton fibres are used to produce 40 per cent of the worlds textiles. Its enduring popularity is its extreme versatility; it can be woven or knitted into a variety of weights. It is durable and has breathable properties, which is useful in hot climates as it absorbs moisture and dries off easily. The longer the fibre, the stronger and better quality the fabric is, for example, Egyptian cotton.
In most cotton production, farmers use chemical fertilisers and pesticides on the soil and spray them on the plants in order to prevent disease, to improve the soil and to increase their harvest. Cotton has always been extremely prone to insect attack and since insects started building up immunity to pesticides, the situation has worsened.
This means growers have increased their use of chemical pesticides simply to ensure crop survival. Cotton crops in India, America and China demand thousands of tonnes of pesticides, which are sprayed on fields from the air. This overuse of pesticides is rendering hundreds of acres of land infertile and contaminating drinking water.
The World Health Organisation estimates that about 20, people die each year as a result of pesticide use. Also the chemicals that are used are absorbed by the cotton plant and remain in the cotton during manufacture, which means that it is still in the fabric that we wear next to our skin. Due to these issues, manufacturers are increasingly developing organic fibres that are grown and processed without the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides.
Organic fabric production is more expensive, but it has a low impact on the environment and is healthier for the consumer. There are designers pursuing organic solutions such as Katharine Hamnett, Wildlifeworks and Edun. Linen Linen has similar properties to cotton, especially in the way it handles, although it tends to crease more easily. Linen has good absorbency and washes well. It is produced from the flax plant and is commonly regarded as the most ancient fibre.
Hemp, ramie and sisal are also used to produce fabrics as an alternative to cotton. The protein fibre keratin comes from hair fibres and is most commonly used in textile production. Sheep produce wool fleece for protection against the elements and this can be shorn at certain times of the year and spun into wool yarn. Different breeds of sheep produce different qualities of yarn. Merino sheep produce the finest and most valuable wool.
Biodegradable and non-toxic pesticides are now more widely used in the production of wool to protect the sheep and improve the environment. Goats are also used to produce wool; certain breeds produce cashmere and angora.
Cashmere is extremely soft and drapes well. Alpaca, camel and rabbit are also sources of fabrics with a warm, luxurious feel to them. Wool has a warm, slightly elastic quality, but it doesnt react well to excessive temperatures; when washed in hot water it shrinks due to the shortening of the fibres.
Heavy hand-knitted jumper made from wool and angora. Ostrich feathers trapped beneath silk voile. The cocoon is made from a continuous thread that is produced by the silkworm to wrap around itself for protection. Cultivated silk is stronger and has a finer appearance than silk harvested in the wild. During the production of cultivated silk the larva is killed, enabling the worker to collect the silk and unravel it in a continuous thread. Silk worms live off mulberry trees.
For one kilogram of silk, grams of leaves must be eaten by the larva. Once extracted from the cocoon, the larva is often used as fish food by the farming community. In the wild, the silkworm chews its way out of its cocoon, thereby cutting into what would otherwise be a continuous thread. Silk fabric has good drape, handle and lustre. Fibres Fur Animals such as mink, fox and finn raccoon are bred on farms where the animals are purely reared for their skin.
This subject causes heated debate between those for and against fur.