Phonology. An Introduction Pragmatics. Semantics. Syntax. Morphology. Phonology. Phonetics .. wm-greece.info~xflu//wm-greece.info 8. Ashby, Michael and John Maidment Introducing phonetic science. Cambridge: University Press. Catford, J. C. A practical introduction to phonetics. An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology_John Clark_Colin Yallop - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. For Phonetics and.
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wm-greece.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. PDF | On Sep 1, , Charalambos Themistocleous and others published Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology [in Greek]. PDF | On Jan 1, , Marc Picard and others published English Phonetics and Phonology: An Introduction (review).
Apical post-alveolar consonants are often called retroflex, while laminal articulations are sometimes called palato-alveolar;  in the Australianist literature, these laminal stops are often described as 'palatal' though they are produced further forward than the palate region typically described as palatal.
Palatal consonants are made using the tongue body against the hard palate on the roof of the mouth. They are frequently contrasted with velar or uvular consonants, though it is rare for a language to contrast all three simultaneously, with Jaqaru as a possible example of a three way contrast. They are incredibly common crosslinguistically; almost all languages have a velar stop.
Because both velars and vowels are made using the tongue body, they are highly affected by coarticulation with vowels and can be produced as far forward as the hard palate or as far back as the uvula.
These variations are typically divided into front, central, and back velars in parallel with the vowel space. They are rare, occurring in an estimated 19 percent of languages, and large regions of the Americas and Africa have no languages with uvular consonants.
In languages with uvular consonants, stops are most frequent followed by continuants including nasals. Due to production difficulties, only fricatives and approximants can produced this way. Epiglottal stops have been recorded in Dahalo.
Because the vocal folds are the source of phonation and below the oro-nasal vocal tract, a number of glottal consonants are impossible such as a voiced glottal stop. Three glottal consonants are possible, a voiceless glottal stop and two glottal fricatives, and all are attested in natural languages. Additionally, glottal stops can be realized as laryngealization of the following vowel in this language.
True glottal stops normally occur only when they're geminated. Manners of articulation describe how exactly the active articulator modifies, narrows or closes off the vocal tract. Pressure builds up in the mouth during the stricture, which is then released as a small burst of sound when the articulators move apart. The velum is raised so that air cannot flow through the nasal cavity.
If the velum is lowered and allows for air to flow through the nose, the result in a nasal stop. However, phoneticians almost always refer to nasal stops as just "nasals". Trills are consonants in which the tongue or lips are set in motion by the airstream. During a glottalic airstream mechanism , the glottis is closed, trapping a body of air. This allows for the remaining air in the vocal tract to be moved separately. An upward movement of the closed glottis will move this air out, resulting it an ejective consonant.
Alternatively, the glottis can lower, sucking more air into the mouth, which results in an implosive consonant.
The release of the anterior closure is referred to as the click influx. The release of the posterior closure, which can be velar or uvular, is the click efflux. Clicks are used in several African language families, such as the Khoisan and Bantu languages. Three properties are needed to define vowels: tongue height, tongue backness and lip roundedness. Vowels that are articulated with a stable quality are called monophthongs ; a combination of two separate vowels in the same syllable is a diphthong.
Vowels whose height are in the middle are referred to as mid. Slightly opened close vowels and slightly closed open vowels are referred to as near-close and near-open respectively. The lowest vowels are not just articulated with a lowered tongue, but also by lowering the jaw. Chomsky and Halle suggest that there are only three levels,  although four levels of vowel height seem to be needed to describe Danish and it's possible that some languages might even need five.
Languages usually do not minimally contrast more than two levels of vowel backness. Some languages claimed to have a three-way backness distinction include Nimboran and Norwegian. Lip position is correlated with height and backness: front and low vowels tend to be unrounded whereas back and high vowels are usually rounded.
Sometimes more specialized tongue gestures such as rhoticity , advanced tongue root , pharyngealization , stridency and frication are required to describe a certain vowel. The sensation of sound is caused by pressure fluctuations which cause the eardrum to move. The ear transforms this movement into neural signals that the brain registers as sound. Acoustic waveforms are records that measure these pressure fluctuations.
Due to the anatomical features of the auditory system distorting the speech signal, humans do not experience speech sounds as perfect acoustic records. Airflow rate. During speech.
Ladefoged The general tendency during speech is for the respiratory system musculature to maintain a relatively consistent level of pressure below the glottis. The maximum volume of air that may be exhaled following maximum inspiration is known as the VITAl.
Psg is relative to the overall level of vocal effort being employed at the time. Rises in Psg tend to occur on strongly stressed syllables. As the available air supply diminishes. Psg provides a measure of the overall articulatory effort being used in a sequence of speech and therefore varies widely between quiet talking and very loud shouting. At point b on the graph. But such changes rarely amount to more than 20 per cent of the average value of Psg.
The figure applies to a speaker standing up and may be slightly different for other postures. At point a on the graph. Investigations by Isshiki and Ringel Figul't' 2. Bouhuys At point c on the graph. Hixon and William. Airflow figures of the kind quoted are measured at the lips and nostrils and represent total airflow through the vocal tract predominantly but not exclusively through the oral cavity.
Ladefoged provides a comprehensive measurement. Thus in the process of swallowing It can be seen that at the point where the relaxation pressure curve intersects with the value of Psg. Ladefoged and his colleagues are careful to point out that the data come from a single subject and that individuals vary in the way they use their respiratory musculature during speech..
We all know the uncomfortable results when this process fails.. Here lung volume The data were obtained from a subject counting from I to 32 at a reasonably constant level of loudness Extensive discussion of respiratory function and the aerodynamics of speech can be found in Hixon The valve action of the larynx is also important in short term physical exertion as a means of stiffening the thorax when we inhale deeply and hold our breath..
Warren and Weismer In speech.. Because the angle is more acute in males. The folds are roughly triangular in cross-section and they include the upper part of the conus elasticus. The larynx has a skeletal frame formed by a series of cartilages see figure 2.
It is a complete ring whereas those below it are completed by flexible connective tissue. The thyroid cartilage consists of two flat plates forming an angle anteriorly which. Hinged to the upper anterior part of the thyroid cartilage is the EPlGI.
The cricoid cartilage extends upwards posteriorly to form a plate. The arytenoids move with respect to the cricoid in a rotational and sliding motion which controls positioning of the attached vocal folds.
Posteriorly each plate of the thyroid cartilage has two horns. Its main function appears to be to deflect food from the laryngeal entrance during swallowing. It is typically around 11 cm long and 2. Some of these cartilages are able to move with respect to each other in ways which affect both the larynx's valving action and its functions in speech production. E is about in males and about t in females.
This allows the cricoid to tilt over a range of about 15 in an anterior-posterior sense with respect to the thyroid cartilage. The tilting motion plays an important role in controlling vocal fold tension.
Extending upward from the superior rim of the cricoid cartilage is a structure of ligamental tissue known.
The cricoid cartilage forms the base of the larynx. The inferior horns form a joint with the cricoid cartilage on its posterior lateral part at matching facets on the two cartilages.
This movement is described in detail by Sonesson The superior horns connect to the hyoid bone. Hixon and Williams IY Broad and Perkins and Kent This action is illustrated in figure 2. The actions of both these muscles are shown in figure 2.
Differences in length do appear after ten years. When contracted. Functionally the muscles fall into two groups: The general structure of the vocal folds and the glottis is shown in the superior view and coronal section of the larynx in figure 2. DS see figure 2. Adapltd from: Above the vocal folds is a similar structure known as the I'AI. The interarytenoid muscle contributes to fold adduction by pulling the aryrenoids together.
Vocal told tension. Poster ior r. The vocal folds run from the inferior edge of the thyroid angle to the anterior part of the arytenoid cartilages. Although its exact function in speech production is not fully understood. In adults the length of the membranous portion is from four to six times that of the cartilaginous portion.
The thyroarytenoid muscle runs from the inner part of the thyroid angle to the anterior and lateral surfaces of the aryrenoids.
The edges of the glottis i. These make no significant contribution to normal vocal fold vibration as such. The various functions of the larynx. Under 'normal conditions of speaking and breathing it is the only muscle responsible for vocal fold abduction. At birth. The arytenoid cartilages and the vocal folds together form the long slit-like laryngeal valve aperture known as the.
Hirano et al. The anatomy of the vocal folds has been well studied with the aim of understanding the behaviour of the folds during speech. The folds are now generally described in terms of cover and body components.
These components have distinctive mechanical properties and to some extent move independently of each other. The lateral cricoarytenoid muscle runs from the anterior lateral pan of the cricoid cartilage to the lateral part of the arytenoid cartilages.
Its contraction pulls the hyoid bone downwards and forwards. The extrinsic laryngeal muscles control overall movement and positioning of the larynx.. This actiort lowers. The sternothy-.
Its function is in general to control tension in the vocal folds.. The sternohyoid is a long strap muscle which runs from the upper posterior part of the breast bone to the anterior part of-the hyoid bone.
Figure Larynx lowering is largely controlled by the STE. The cricothyroid muscle runs between the anterior lateral part of the cricoid cartilage and the lower lateral part of the thyroid cartilage. Schneiderman The tilting action of the cartilages can be seen in figure 2.
The vocalis is generally thought to contribute to quite fine tension control. The vocalis muscle. For an overview of the role of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles.
In its simplest form. When the glottis is closed i. The extrinsic laryngeal musculature is responsible for positioning and stabilizing the larynx. When contracted it pulls the hyoid. When both components are contracted. The stylohyoid is a long thin muscle running between the base of the skull and the greater horns of the hyoid bone. When contracted it pulls downward on the hyoid bone and contributes to lowering the larynx. The hypothesis that vocal fold vibration is directly controlled by neural impulses.
The geniohyoid muscle runs from the upper anterior part of the inner face of the jawbone to the anterior surface of the hyoid bone. It runs from around the inner face of the jawbone via connective tissue to the hyoid hone and among other functions aids the action of the geniohyoid and other muscles in raising the larynx.
Hirano and Kakita The thyrohyoid muscle runs from the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone. Thus as air flows through the narrow glottis. The digastricus literally 'twobellied' is a long thin muscle having two components: This theory takes into account not only the effects of aerodynamic forces. The potential movement of the larynx is mainly vertical. Hardcasue neurophysiological evidence and in any case presumes a rapidity of muscular control which cannot be substantiated.
In addition. The action is due to the combined effects of the aerodynamic forces and the flexible structure of the folds themselves. This in turn will mean that the vocal folds close again. The omohyoid muscle runs from the upper part of the shoulder blade to the lower part of the hyoid bone. The extrinsic laryngeal muscles and the general direction of the laryngeal movements they control are shown in figure 2. As a consequence. The hyoglossus which also functions as a tongue muscle may contribute to raising the larynx: When contracted it pulls downwards on the thyroid cartilage.
The mylohyoid is a thin sheet of muscle which is part of the structure of the floor of the mouth. The actual opening and dosing of the folds has been described as a rippling action: The elasticity of the folds assists the entire process.
Details of such waveforms and the techniques of investigation will be found in chapter 7 below. The frequency is determined by subglottal pressure Psg and by laryngeal adjustments governing the length. The opening quotient is thus the duration of glottal opening during one cycle. Normally there is some interaction among the three. Perceived loudness is related to subglottal pressure section 2. As the increased kinetic energy must be dissipated.
The consequent 'sharpness' or 'brightness'. Since pitch contours do not generally follow such a simple pattern. In normal speech the quotient is typically around 0. Psg tends to remain relatively constant during a sequence of speech.
Pitch is the perceptual correlate of the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds. What we have called 'timbre'. Lieberman and Blumstein maintain that Psg is the primary determinant of frequency.
Although these control mechanisms do not normally function independently. Note air leakage at maximum closure The actual sound produced hy the larynx during phonation is created not hy the vibration itself. Schneiderman f As already noted. The explanation for this is that an increase in Psg and in the force of the Bernoulli effect will cause the vocal folds to be forced further apart and pulled together again more rapidly. With increasing loudness.
It is possible to distinguish three auditory dimensions or parameters of phonation: At the same time. It is difficult to make a smooth transition between registers because the vocal folds have to be considerably elongated and tensed for falsetto. It may also show some activity during voiced fricatives.
Flanagan et al. Most researchers agree that cricothyroid muscle activity correlates well with pitch control. Above the highest pitch which can be attained within chest register.
The vocalis muscle is also active during rises in pitch. Details of various aspects of pitch control and phonation mode can be found in van den Berg 19M! Broad likens this to shifting gears in a car to suit the speed required. Honda Such shortening. To make the transition it is thus necessary to reset the laryngeal musculature. The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. See van den Berg Ohala ] Beyond the normal or modal phonation we have considered so far.
Other adductor muscles may also playa lesser role in this process. Here the opening quotient may become greater than 0. Although less well understood. Reviewing the research literature on laryngeal function and control. Hardcastle It appears to contribute to tension and stiffening the body of the folds. Sawashima Finer phonatory distinctions will be dealt with under the heading of 'phonatory modes' section 3. The positioning of the larynx by extrinsic muscle forces acting on the external cartilaginous structure of the larynx also has some indirect effect on vocal fold tension: According to van den Berg The intrinsic laryngeal muscles also control the timing of laryngeal action relative to supraglottal articulatory activity.
During a voiced sound. As van den Berg puts it. There is. The extrinsic laryngeal muscles also contribute to pitch control. It is possible to alter the quality without greatly altering the loudness of the voice. With even less vocal effort. It must also be recognized that information about laryngeal muscle function during speech is quite limited.
These variations are not generally noticeable in the healthy adult voice. The reverse occurs in soft speech with low vocal effort. Hollien and Lieberman and Blumstein The transverse arytenoid muscle appears to function reciprocally with the posterior cricoarytenoid.
The thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles also appear to contribute to rises in pitch by medial compression of the folds. The complex nature of laryngeal control of phonation makes it hard to offer any brief and simple summary. For details. Phonation is never perfectly regular in its periodicity. While variation in voice almost always accompanies significant changes in loudness. Ohala Hirose and Gay ] There is also an accompanying increase in the length of the folds which may offset the rise in pitch.
Ohala notes: It can be sealed off from the lower sections of the pharynx by raising the soft palate see figure 2. It acts as an air passage for respiration. It makes a passive contribution to speech production by forming part of the length of the supraglottal vocal tract. Up and down movement of the larynx also substantially alters the length and hence volume of the laryngo-pharynx. Further details can be found in Zemlin Because of the muscular linkages between the hyoid bone and the body of the tongue.
Typically around 12 cm long. The diameter of the pharynx at the tip of the epiglottis. Since the anterior face of this section is formed by the back of the tongue and the upper part of the epiglottis. For descriptive purposes it is commonly divided into three functional areas. The velum is lowered by the action of the PAI. Al muscles. Oral vocal tract: This muscle runs from the sphenoid bone at the skull base to connective tissue which passes around a projection of the same bone to insert into the aponeurosis at the sides of the velum.
IIM is a continuation of the roof of the mouth. When contracted it pulls the velum upward. When contracted with the larynx stabilized. It consists of a flexible sheet of muscular tissue covered in mucous membrane ending at the UVUI. This action may be assisted by the UVUl. The palatoglossus. When raised. Physiology of Speech Productio" 4S 2. I palatal tensor muscle. The palatopharyngeal muscle. These variations are obviously involuntary but certainly affect the nasal cavity's resonant properties and its contribution to the acoustic and perceptual characteristics of speech.
In the articulation of stops. According to Moll and Shriner Three bony protrusions. But Lubker disagrees with Moll and Shriner. Part of the problem is that there appear. External factors do affect the size and shape of the nasal cavity. But in oral vowels it is quite common for some flow to occur through the nasal cavity as well. In fricatives. Its importance rests on our ability to control the geometry and volume of the cavity.
Just behind the upper teeth is the tooth ridge. In some languages. Whether there is in fact a greater degree of inherent nasality in low vowels. The nasal cavity system has a complex shape. This nasal flow may be due to persistent or anticipatory velum movement because of neighbouring nasal consonants. The cavity is typically about 10 em long from pharynx to nostrils. Voluntary control of the cavity's contribution to sound quality can be achieved only indirectly.
In other languages. Specific muscular activity also appears to be influenced by phonetic context. See Bell-Bern for an extensive discussion of velopharyngeal function. The naso-pharynx leads into the nasal cavity.
The limits of the oral cavity are defined anteriorly by the lips. The size of the area and its covering of mucous membrane mean that incoming air is warmed and humidified during normal respiration through the nose.
Coupled to them is a series of auxiliary cavities. The speech of those who have a cleft palate or related structural deficiency reveals the consequences of inability to create a reasonable degree of velopharyngeal closure when required. The superior longitudinal is directly under the surface of the dorsum.
It is anchored anteriorly by some of its extrinsic muscles to the hyoid bone. Daniloff The tongue consists largely of muscle. These and the shape of the palatal arch itself vary widely from individual to individual. Cooperation between extrinsic and intrinsic muscles is made clear. The consequent mobility and plasticity of the tongue are fundamental to speech production. Its contraction can shorten the tongue and contribute to raising the tip and edges. Studies designed to capture the complex positioning and posture of the tongue include the famous.
In completing this summary of the role of individual muscles in tongue control. It should be noted that some writers call the body of the tongue the dorsum for purposes of articulatory description. With its anterior fibres it aids the action of the genioglossus in depressing and pulling back the tongue tip. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue mostly lie above the extrinsic.
The fibres in the anterior and posterior parts of this muscle arc capable of independent contraction.
The genioglossus is a bulky muscle which runs from the medial part of the posterior surface of the jawbone. The hyoglossus mentioned in section 2. OSSl S. The inferior longitudinal runs from the root of the tongue. When the posterior part is contracted.
Its contraction will pull the tongue upwards and backwards. When the anterior part is contracted. The hard palate ends approximately level with the rearmost molars and the partition between the nasal and oral cavities is continued by the soft palate or velum see section 2. We take the dorsum to have three parts: The styloglossus runs from the base of the skull down and forward to the back edges of the tongue.
Probably for this very reason. The buccinator. All these muscles contribute to lip raising when contracted. This action uses muscles such as the superior and inferior longitudinals to control the requisite rapid movement of the tongue tip.
Lindau and others have undertaken similar analyses in a more modern context. Raising of the upper lip is controlled by a series of levator muscles. The faster and more localized kind of activity includes blockage of the vocal tract by placing the tongue tip just behind the upper teeth. They consist of two fleshy folds which are richly supplied with muscles and are formed externally of skin and internally of mucous membrane.
The muscle is thus capable of providing a range of different movements associated with lip control. As with most of the articulatory system. The slower positioning includes. Muscles associated with the lips allow control over opening and closure.
When the muscle is contracted. He suggests that the extrinsic tongue muscles are responsible for the relatively slow positional adjustments required mainly in vowel production..
The levator labii superior muscles run from the maxilla bone to the medial part of the upper lip around the nasolabial groove. The zygomatic minor runs from the cheek bone of the skull to the upper lips and orbicularis oris fibres. As Abbs has observed. Sonesson Perkell analysed the dynamic behaviour of the tongue during articulation by using sophisticated cine X-ray film measurements.
The name 'bugler's muscle' points to its role as an antagonist to distension of the cheeks during blowing or bugling. If the lips or tongue are immobilized. Certain vowels. These and other functions of the lip muscles during articulation are discussed in Hardcastle and Zemlin For a sound such as the fricative [f]. Longitudinal mouth angle movement is controlled by the I. The temporal muscle runs from a wide area of the upper lateral part of the skull to the front of the upper end of the ramus of the mandible.
The depressor triangularis. The mandible is capable of movement in vertical. The risorius. The mandible does nevertheless function both as a moving articulator and as an important anchor point for a number of muscles which affect and are affected by its movement.
Kennedy and Abbs give a detailed account of labial musculature. Contraction of these muscles will pull the jaw forward. The zygomatic major runs from the outer cheek bone to blend with the orbicularis oris at the mouth angle. Contraction of these muscles will raise the mandible. The internal pterygoid runs from the lateral part of the skull to the posterior of the ramus of the mandible. It may be lowered to Adap"d from: The external pterygoid runs from the area of the cheekbone to the posterior part of the extremity of the ramus of the mandible.
It also has an important function in maintaining tension in the cheeks during oral activity.
This may require the orbicularis oris to pull the lower lip inwards. Other vowels. The levator anguli oris runs from the lateral part of the maxilla and blends with the orbicularis oris at the mouth angle.
Like the tongue muscles. In vertical movement. Of these adjustments. All of these muscles have attachments in the posterior face of the anterior part of the mandible and. This independence would certainly contribute to the extent and versatility of labial movement control.
Lindblom has also made indirect photographic measurements of the relationships between lip and jaw movement. Taking a biological perspective. Photographic studies by Fujimura have shown that mandible movement normally accompanies the opening of the lips at the release a stop such as pI as in pay. Dickson and Dickson J and Perkins and Kent The colour photographs of relevant anatomical sections and specimens in McMinn and Hutchings may also be helpful.
Investigations of this sort show that mandible movement does not correspond directly with lip movement. Thus in vowel articulation.
This is partly a matter of inertia. What is the 'aerodynamic myoelastic theory of phonation'? Since mandible movement is generally involved in setting the tongue position for low vowels.
Again Baken provides a useful review of the techniques of investigation. There is a connection between mandible movement and lip movement. In what sense do these functions remain primary? Under normal conditions. Bernoulli effect glottis innervation ratio of a muscle neuron subglottal pressure synapse thyroid angle trachea velum 2 Give a broad outline of the 'apparatus' with which we produce speech.
Ensure that you understand the following: CNS and PNS cranial nerves spinal nerves autonomic nervous system 5 What is feedback and what kinds do we use in monitoring speech?
The role of jaw aperture in speech production is quantified in models of articulatory processes outlined by Lindblom and Sundberg and Coker Readers wishing to consult more technical works on the anatomy and physiology of speech production are reminded of works already cited. Then explain Figure 2. If the larynx moves upwards in this way. The West African language Hausa. Ejective fricatives are not as common. In principle. To a large extent. Basic discussion of sounds using glottalic airflow can be found in Ladefoged The chapter explains the ways in which airflow is generated section 3.
Outward lung airflow is the normal mode: L 1TAI. Ejective stops are found in languages of the Caucasus area. There are. Indonesian and Chinese use no other mechanism. This chapter will deal with the ways in which speech sounds can be described. Since the glottis is dosed.
The two mechanisms outward and inward lung air are often referred to as F. Maidu from central California has bilabial and alveolar ejectives and implosives alongside pulmonic [p] and It] as well a velar ejective stop and an ejective counterpart of the affricate [ts]. In the flow of articulation. The upward movement of the larynx. Greenberg The piston action of the larynx is generally less effective in producing ingressive airflow than egressive.
Some speakers of English sometimes produce word-final ejectives. Readers can attempt such sounds by taking a breath and holding it thus shutting the glottis. Chapter 4 will take up the question of defining and delineating discrete segments and will show that many sounds defy simple segmental assumptions.
The glottis is closed. Implosives are found in a number of African and American languages. According to Ladefoged this upward leakage may offset the suction action of the downward larynx movement so that there is little or no inward airflow through the mouth. The sounds can still be counted as implosives.
While it is possible to produce speech using ingressive lung airflow. Following Pike. Segmental Articulation 57 An egressive pulmonic airstream is the norm in all languages. Click sounds are found in rather few languages about 1 per cent of the world's languages.
The distinction between voiceless and voiced sounds applies in a high proportion of the world's languages though it is certainly not universal. Ladefoged suggests that the opening for voiceless articulation is similar to that required in normal breathing. Vocal fold abduction is largely a function of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle action.
The technique. The following account focuses on the distinctions that do seem relevant in language. Thus the categories are not simple and direct reflections of different ways of using the larynx. Readers will be familiar with the kind of click made when the tongue tip is reasonably forward.
When the tongue is moved downwards. Catford's figures suggest that voiceless articulation is maintained provided that airflow does not exceed crrr' per second depending on the degree of glottal opening. Both accounts exploit combinations of a series of basic laryngeal settings. With considerable practice this mechanism.
The tongue is in effect sucked off the roof of the mouth. The action is that of a light kiss. The simplest form of click is made with the lips. Catford and Ladefoged and Traill Laver Further discussion of airstream processes can be found in Pike The vocal folds are held far enough apart to allow a laminar or nonturbulent airflow through the glottis.
It is also important to bear in mind rhat besides this role as a sound source. We noted above.
Such nasal click sounds do occur in languages that exploit the velaric airstream mechanism. Air in front of this tongue closure may then be sealed off by closing the lips or by pressing the sides and tip of the tongue against the roof of the mouth behind the teeth.
The complex laryngeal musculature is such that the vocal folds can be manipulated in highly diverse ways. Other linguists such as Halle and Stevens and Ladefoged work with rather fewer categories. Although it is possible to generate both egressive and ingressive airflow using this oral air supply.
Click articulation requires complex interuction If the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles. Catford Sounds produced in this way are commonly known as CI. In these languages. They are characteristic of the Khoisan languages of the Kalahari area in southern Africa of which the most famous is probably Hottentot but are also found in Bantu languages such as Zulu and Xhosa Westermann and Ward The egressive velaric and egressive pulmonic airstreams can also be activated simultaneously to produce.
These categories of laryngeal action are defined not just by observation of the physiology of the larynx. Voiceless sounds in English include the. If the airflow is more than moderate. It is this rapid and rather turbulent inflow which causes the characteristic click sound. These muscle actions would result in short.
Many of till' world's languages have similar sounds contrasting with their voiced counterparts: For basic glottal configurations. The characteristic consequence of the whisper setting is that there is significant turbulence at the glottis. CREAK is a phonation mode characterized by low frequency vibration of the vocal folds. At one end of the continuum. This evidence suggests that there is posterior and medial compression from posterior cricoarytenoid muscle activity and medial compression from lateral cricoarytenoid muscle activity.
We retain the term 'breathy voice'. Whisper thus exploits a usable sound source without demanding a large air supply from the respiratory system. In English. This functions as a sound source which can then be modified by articulatory activity in the supraglottal vocal tract. All languages have voiced sounds. We have also assumed throughout this section that chest register voice section 2. Several languages of south Asia make a systematic distinction between breathy voice and normal voiced phonation: But the precise settings of the larynx that can be regarded as producing 'normal voice' depend not only on the language.
It I as in tea. As the area of glottal opening is small. Voiced creak is sometimes referred to as 'Iaryngealization'. In a language such as English. There is some terminological inconsistency around this kind of phonation. Laver and Trudgill Usually the arytcnoids remain slightly apart while the ligamenta! It has also been variously described.
Sprigg According to Catford VOICE refers to normal vocal fold vibration section 2. There is some uncertainty among researchers about exactly how creak is produced. Readers should be able to verify the degree of tension by changing back and forth between whisper and quiet breathing. Adduction of the false vocal folds may also help to narrow the glottal airflow path.
This setting can be created by the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles contributing to medial compression of the ligamental folds and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle contributing to abduction of the aryrenoids. See Sprigg for a general review of phonation description including some criticism of Catford. For Carford. Vietnamese and Zulu. The consequent variation in voice quality can be described impressionistically as ranging from 'dark' or 'mellow' the most relaxed end of the range of muscle settings.
This occurs when glottal closure during the vibratory cycle is not complete hence the term 'breathy'. Both Bernard and Lindau describe this measurement procedure in detail. The most successful outcome of this idea. Bernard Ob. In each set of eight there are two vowels which represent the outer limits of vocalic articulation. The cardinal vowels are not drawn from any particular language or languages but are derived from a kind of grid imposed upon the space in which the tongue moves.
The nearest English example is an extremely lowered and retracted form of the vowel in hard. Assuming that this method gives a valid measure of vocalic articulation. In an effort to bring accuracy and objectivity into impressionistic vowel descriptions. It is the tongue that largely determines the geometry of the oral and pharyngeal cavities. Lip protrusion also provides a means of extending the overall length of the vocal tract.
The reason for choosing these two vowels as starting points is that they are the easiest or perhaps least difficult to locate by the feel of the tongue. There are 16 cardinal vowels in all.
The size and shape of the tract can be varied. The nearest example in English is an extremely raised and fronted form of the vowel in heed. Thus 1 and 2. The major challenge in describing the articulation of vocalic sounds is to define the position of the tongue. As an alternative. The articulatory positions of some Australian English vowels. Another possibility is to base the description on auditory impressions.
These vowels are intended to serve as standard reference points. The height and fronting of this point are then plotted relative to some external reference point such as the atlas vertebra. There is no handy landmark on the tongue to serve as a point of reference in this mapping. From cardinalI. The tongue moves within a spatial continuum without making any significant constriction in the area surrounding the midline of the oral cavity. An early example of the procedure is found in the frontispiece photographs in Jones The back vowels of the series arc similarly formed.
It is often convenient to usc the word 'vowel'. The second reference vowel is cardinal 5. Vocalic sounds are produced by egressive pulmonic airflow through vibrating or constricted vocal folds in the larynx and through the vocal tract.
Thus the two most fundamental articulatory manoeuvres in producing various vocalic sounds are the shape and position of the tongue. In the primary cardinal vowel set. Jones then defines cardinals 2. The disadvantage here is precisely that it is to some degree impressionistic: In fact Ladefoged has shown that the assumption is not fully warranted.
Understood in that way. Harshman et al. Riordan and Lindblom et al. The fact that many phoneticians have used the system with a considerable degree of consistency is largely due to thorough training. They stand. Given these difficulties. Ladefoged et al. The only 'standard' recording of the cardinal vowels is by Jones himself.
Despite this. Cardinals are produced with the lips rounded. Note that the two reference points in the system cardinals 1 and 5 are established on physiological grounds. A third problem concerns the definition of tongue position. His measurements reveal that the front vowels cardinals are indeed roughly equidistant.
He then constructed a quadrilateral with these four vowels at the corners jones Lindau provides data to show that back vowels in natural languages similarly fail to conform to the cardinal idealization. The continuing use of articulatory labels for auditory qualities is unfortunate.
X-rays of vowels in actual languages show that speakers generally have several possible ways of producing a given auditory vowel quality. There is thus no reason to assume a one-to-one matching of articulatory position and auditory quality. The vowel quadrilateral is irregular. He examined X-ray photographs of a complete set of cardinal vowels published in Jones took the tongue positions for cardinals 1. Experimental investigations by Lindblom and Sundberg Recent research suggests that it is the location of the major constriction formed by the tongue.
The cardinal vowels are thus intended to represent the most peripheral tongue positions for vocalic sounds. Wood t The eight secondary cardinal vowels are produced exactly as the primary set.
But tongue position could be measured in various ways. Jones implies that the tongue positions of the cardinal vowels also progress in equal steps. Jones himself stressed 'ear training' and the importance of learning the cardinal vowels from a competent teacher.
In the classic formulation. The fundamental worry about the cardinal vowel system is that it confuses articulatory and auditory properties. A second difficulty with the cardinal vowel system is that the specifications of tongue position suggest an invariant tongue position for each vowel quality.
Now it may seem reasonable to suppose that changes in articulatory setting and changes in auditory quality go hand in hand.
Cardinal vowels ]-5 are produced with the lips in a neutral or spread position most spread for 1 and progressing to neutral for 4 and 5. German Goethe French heure. German gut French tu.
German G6tter not distinctive English hock. Conventional symbols for the primary and secondary cardinal vowels are listed in table 3.